Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Direct and Indirect Speech Direct and Indirect Speech Cartoon Strip Eureka Phonica Eureka Phonica Eureka Do you know that what has been said can be stated in two ways direct speech and indirect speech? Direct speech means the exact words that have been spoken. Indirect speech means what is said is stated in our own words, so it differs somewhat from what was actually said. When the speech changes from direct to indirect, the tense, person and adverb may change. Indirect speech is presented in the form of an assertive sentence. Four kinds of sentences are presented in direct speech assertive, interrogative, commands and requests and exclamatory. The reporting verbs also change, depending on the kind of sentence. Launch Pad In this chapter, we shall learn how to interchange direct and indirect speech Taking Off Note to Teacher As direct and indirect speech has already been taught prepare flash cards with a sentence in direct speech on one side and the same sentence in indirect speech on the other side. Example : 1) Baiju said, I am going home. 2) Baiju said that he was going out. Divide the class into pairs and provide 2 flash cards to each group. Student A will read out the sentence in direct speech to student B. Student B will change the speech. Student A will turn the card over and check whether the sentence is correct. If it is correct, Student B will score one point. Each pair can exchange their cards with other pairs and score more points. Tell them that we can state what has been said in two ways direct speech and indirect speech. We can state what people have said in two ways. We can state the exact words that were spoken. This is known as direct speech Example : Happy birthday, Ronita ! said the children. Why do you wish to consult me? asked the lawyer. Give me an explanation right now, demanded her father. I will have to set out tomorrow, said Marco Polo. Or We can state what was said in our own words. This is known as indirect speech or reported speech. Example: The children greeted Ronita on her birthday. The lawyer wanted to know why I wished to consult him. Her father demanded an explanation right then. Marco Polo said that he would have to set out the next day. Direct Speech Points to Note The exact words of the speaker are placed within double inverted commas. A comma is placed immediately before the quoted words. Depending on the kind of sentence the end mark is a full stop, a question mark or a mark of exclamation. The first word within quotation marks begins with a capital letter. Assertive Sentences Read the following sentences: Ram said, I am reading this book. Ram said that he was reading that book. Changes take place in the person ( I changes to he), tense (am reading changes to was reading) and adverb (this changes to that) when the speech changes from direct to indirect. said to changes to told. Example: He said to his sister, You can buy the gift. He told his sister that she could buy the gift. If a universal truth is stated in direct speech, the tense does not change in reported speech. Example: She said, Honey is sweet. She said that honey is sweet. If the reporting verb is in the present tense in indirect speech, the reported speech is also in the present tense. Example: He says, The old house seems to be haunted. He says that the old house seems to be haunted. If the verb in direct speech is in the simple past tense, the verb in reported speech also remains in the simple past tense. Example: She said, I went home. She said that she went home. If the verb in direct speech is in the past tense and the time of action is mentioned, the verb changes to past perfect tense in reported speech. Example: She said, I went home at midnight. She said that she had gone home at midnight. Changes in adverbs are as follows: Direct speech Indirect speech now then here there this that these those ago before thus so today that day yesterday the day before/ the previous day tomorrow the next/ following day tonight that night last week the previous week/ the week before here there next week the following week Info Orbit When an assertive sentence changes from direct to indirect there are changes in the person, tense and adverb. The comma after said is replaced with that. said to changes to told. If a universal truth is stated in reported speech the tense does not change If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense in reported speech does not change. If the past tense is used in the reported speech in direct speech, it will remain unchanged in indirect speech. If the past tense is used in reported speech in direct speech and the time of the action is mentioned, the simple past tense will change to past perfect tense Practice Pulsars I. Change from direct to indirect speech: There is no need to leave tonight, she said to her friend. He said, The sun is shining brightly. She said to her father, I know you are angry with me.Ã¢â¬ The scientist said, They will conduct experiments in this laboratory. The princess said to the minister, We have to reach a decision tomorrow. The teacher said to the class, All of you are aware that the earth moves round the sun. Every morning my father says, It is a new day and I am thankful to be alive. Mother said , Today may be a very hot day . He said to me, I am reminding you that time and tide wait for none. The coach said, At this time, next week, the result of the match will be declared. II. Change from indirect to direct The captain told his men that they must not underestimate the enemy. Taruna said that she had no idea how the accident had taken place the previous evening. Usri told the children that all that glitters is not gold. Ginny said that long, long ago there was a continent called Atlantis. Raman said that the following day he would sit down with them and make a plan. The milkman told the lady that the milk was watery as the cow had drunk a lot of water that morning. She says that fifteen minutes of meditation every morning keeps her calm for the rest of the day. Mrs Das told her neighbour that she had gone to Kolkata two years before. Vinita said that those photographs were more precious than gold to her. Old Mrs Vincent was of the opinion that a house was better than a flat. Interrogative sentences When questions are changed to reported speech, the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. Example: Karan said, When will the match begin? Karan asked when the match would begin. The reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. Example: Savita said, Where is Peter? Savita asked where Peter was. or Savita inquired where Peter was. Damien said to Rahul, Are you absolutely sure? Damien wanted to know if Rahul was absolutely sure. or Damien inquired of Rahul if he was absolutely sure. Flash tip :1. said changes to asked or inquired. said to changes to asked or inquired of. 2. enquired/ enquired of may be used instead of inquired/inquired of. If the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. Example: Rama said, Can I use that pen? Rama asked if she could use that pen. If the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. Example: Rama said, When did this happen? Rama asked when it happened. There are changes in the person, tense and adverbs just like in the assertive sentences. Info Orbit When questions are changed to reported speech, the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. The reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. If the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. If the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. Practice Pulsar III. Change the speech Damini said, Can you explain the sum now? Rajiv asked Poonam, What are these stacks of paper for? Have you enjoyed yourselves today? said the instructor. Minu inquired, Tom, why are you packing your bag? The children said, Will you take us to the zoo next week? He said, How much further do we have to travel? She asked whether they were ready to go for a walk that evening. Shyam asked me why I was laughing so much. Fanny wanted to know who lived in the old house on the hill. The headman asked if anyone had worked for that company a year back. The detective enquired of the witness if he had seen the man in the photograph. Akhilesh wished to know how many of his classmates would go for a picnic. Commands and Requests Read the given sentences: 1.She said, Please tie your seat belt. She requested me to tie my seatbelt. 2. She said, Buy the necessities before the sun sets. She ordered him to buy the necessities before the sun set. 3. She said, Let us organise a party. She suggested that they should organise a party. The reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. The main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. tie in sentence 1 changes to to tie, and buy in sentence 2 changes to to buy. Even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. Example : He said, Please sit down. He requested her to sit down. When the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. In sentence 3 organise changes to should organise. Info Orbit The reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. The main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. Even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. When the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. Practice Pulsar IV. Change the speech: Keep the vase on the table, Sima, she said. Make sure that you have enough water, the guide said. Please do not make so much noise, said the official to the visitors. Let us clean the compound, said the monitor. Switch off the fans and lights before you leave, he said. Kindly contribute generously, said the child at the door. She ordered the children to cross the road cautiously. They requested us to wait for a few hours before lodging a complaint. The man told us to take a right turn to reach the bakery. We suggested to the old people that they should visit the orphanage once a week. The officer ordered the men to take up their positions. He requested her to take off her shoes outside the temple. Exclamations and Exclamatory Sentences Read the given sentences: He said, Alas! I have lost everything. He exclaimed in sorrow that he had lost everything. The reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. The emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. So Alas! is replaced by exclaimed in sorrow. She said, How hot the day is! She exclaimed that the day was very hot. When an exclamatory sentence in direct speech begins with How or What, it is usually replaced with very in reported speech. Info Orbit The reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. The emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. Practice Pulsar V. Change the speech He said, Hurrah! I have won the lottery. She said, What a pretty little girl you are! The lady said, What a fool I have been! He said, Oh! This is the best car I have seen. He said, O God! Forgive me for what I have done. The teacher congratulated him, saying that he had done very well. Wendy exclaimed that the bed was very comfortable. Madan exclaimed in joy that he was free at last. The jackal exclaimed that the crow had a very sweet voice. Ms Parekh exclaimed in grief that her brother was responsible for his own downfall. Ellen exclaimed that the weather was very chilly. Brendan exclaimed that it was a great pity that they had missed the show. Word Zoomer Reported Speech : Indirect speech is also known as reported speech. When direct speech changes to reported speech usually the first and second person change to the third person, the present tense changes to the past tense and the adverbs showing nearness in time and position are replaced by adverbs that show distance in time and position. Direct Speech : The words that are actually said. These are placed within quotation marks. Reporting verb : The verb that introduces direct speech or reported speech. For e.g. said, exclaimed, asked, whispered, requested and commanded. Touch Down When assertive sentences in direct speech are changed to indirect speech there are changes in the person, tense and adverb. the comma after said is replaced with that. said to changes to told. if a universal truth is stated in reported speech the tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense in reported speech does not change. if the past tense is used in the reported speech in direct speech, it will remain unchanged in indirect speech. if the past tense is used in reported speech in direct speech and the time of the action is mentioned, the simple past tense will change to past perfect tense When interrogative sentences in direct speech are changed to indirect speech the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. the reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. if the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. if the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. When requests and commands in direct speech are changed to indirect speech the reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. the main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. when the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. When exclamations and exclamatory sentences are changed to indirect speech the reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. the emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. Flash tip : The shortest letters are said to have been exchanged between Victor Hugo and his publisher. When Les Miserables was released Victor Hugo wanted to know if it was well-received or not, so he sent a letter to his publisher with only ? written on it. The publishers response also consisted of a single punctuation mark ! Star Exercise I. Each of the following sentences contains an error. Correct the sentences. Rani said to Praveen that she would go over to his house that day. Brinda said that it was almost ten o clock now. She asked that if the bakers boy had delivered the bread. Sandeep said that the earth was round. Mohan said, Sandeep you are absolutely right. Deepa said, How cute the puppies look. Anand said You can leave the room now. Do not look so sad, said my friend. II. Read the dialogue given below and fill in the blanks: Akram Nibha Akram Nibha Akram Nibha Why are you looking so worried? My father has been transferred to a new place. Dont you want to go with him? I do, but I shall miss all my friends. What a lucky girl you are ! You will be seeing a new place and making new friends. I am feeling much better. Thank you. Akram asked Nibha (1) .. Nibha replied that her father (2).. Akram then inquired if (3) . with him. Nibha said that she did, but (4) Akram exclaimed that (5) . because she would be seeing (6) Nibha thanked him because (7) .. Comet Exercise Choose the correct alternative Shalini and Malini were twins. One day, while taking a walk Shalini said, I dont think (1. we have taken the right path / we had taking the right path/ we had taken the right path). Malini looked around and found nothing wrong. Why had Shalini made such a comment? She felt that her sister (2. has made a mistake /had made a mistake /is making a mistake.) Shalini pointed to a tree. (3.What do you have to say about it? / What did she have to say about it?/ What did you have to say about it? ) Malini (4.asked/exclaimed/ told) that it was (5. a very huge tree/ very huge trees/ a huge tree). Shalini sighed, You lack observation powers. We walk here every day. Have you seen it before? Malini answered, No, I have not. ( 6.I think we took a wrong turning / I am thinking we took a wrong turning/ I have thought we took a wrong turning) near the bazaar. Shalini (7.asked/ requested/ exclaimed) an old man (8. if he can help them / if he could help them / whether he could helps them). The old man guided them back and (9. advised/ commanded/ requested) them to be careful in future. Shalini and Malini assured him that (10. yes/ they would be more careful/ they will be more careful).
Monday, January 20, 2020
Imagine a world where everyone looked like you and was related to you as a sibling, cousin, or any form of relation, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t that be freaky? Although cloning is not an important issue presently, it could potentially replace sexual reproduction as our method of producing children. Cloning is a dangerous possibility because it could lead to an over-emphasis on the importance of the genotype, no guaranteed live births, and present risks to both the cloned child and surrogate mother. It also violates the biological parent-child relationship and can cause the destruction of the normal structure of a family. The cloning of the deceased is another problem with cloning because it displays the inability of the parents to accept the childÃ¢â¬â¢s death and does not ensure a successful procedure. Along with the risks, there are benefits to Human Reproductive Cloning. It allows couples who cannot have a baby otherwise to enjoy parenthood and have a child who is directly related to them. It also limits the risk of transmitting genetic diseases to the cloned child and the risk of genetic defects in the cloned child. Although the government has banned Human Reproductive Cloning, the issue will eventually come to the surface and force us to consider the 1st commandment of God, all men are equal in the eyes of god, but does this also include clones? That is the question that we must answer in the near future in order to resolve a controversy that has plagued us for many years. In the world today, issues such as Global Warming and the War in Iraq take the front cover on any newspaper, but in the world tomorrow, the concept of cloning will become an ever-more pressing issue. How do you define the term cloning? Well, in the words of Jac... ...e pressing issue that will question our morals, ethics, and view on human dignity. As a society, we must come to a decision regarding Human Cloning and stand by it, whether it is the right decision or not. Our actions will have a profound impact on the methods of reproduction used by future generations. Works Cited Page Cibelli, Jose, et al. Principles of Cloning. San Diego: Academic Press (AP), 2002. Brannigan, C. Michael. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning. New York: Seven Bridges Press, Chatham House Publishers, 2001. "Arguments for "Reproductive Cloning." The Presidents Council on Bioethics. Vers. 3a. 7/12/07. http://bioethicsprint.bioethics.gov/background/workpaper3a.html Ã¢â¬Å"Arguments against Ã¢â¬Å"Reproductive Cloning.Ã¢â¬ The Presidents Council on Bioethics. Vers. 3b. 7/12/07. http://www.bioethics.gov/background/workpaper3b.html
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Samuel Huntington is the author of the article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Clash of Civilizations? Ã¢â¬ which discusses or narrates concepts that explicates world politics. According to Huntington, international conflicts that concerns politics may be justified by rational arguments or issues that are left unresolved. However, Huntington reiterates that these particular conflicts are founded on underlying issues or matters that naturally lead to political conflicts Ã¢â¬â that is culture.According to Huntington, culture is threatening to divide nations instead of leading the way to support unity and oneness in handling international problems or issues, since culture is the primary source of irreconcilable differences and conflicts that do not provide opportunities for nations to meet in middle ground. As a means of representing concrete structures of culture, Huntingon has labeled seven civilizations being the Confucian, Hindu, Islamic, Japanese, Latin American, Slavic-Orthodox, and Wes tern. One may notice that Huntington left out the African populace as one of the identified civilizations.This is because Huntington was unsure about the state of the African nation, that is, whether it meets the standards and guidelines of development that is attributed to a mindful and responsive civilization. The classification of Huntington of the world population into civilizations was primary influenced by prominent religious affiliations that are a major identifier of culture. Personally, I would have to agree with Huntington on this matter, since I sincerely believe that cultural affiliations among individuals are largely influenced by the religious beliefs that they share.Huntington believes that the strong ties of individuals to their culture and religion which grants them a sense of self or identity as an individual and as a nation, is difficult to break apart when it comes to promoting rational politics and relations that necessitates the disregard of personal worldviews as directed by a civilizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. However, HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s establishment of seven civilizations has also been a source of contradicting information that he has presented in his article since the classification of civilizations is complicated and inconsistent.Moreover, Huntington mentioned that differences between people, as supported by his theory of the seven civilizations in the world, do not necessarily mean that there will be conflict, and conflict does not necessarily mean that it will lead to violence. However, the gist of HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s article clearly displays how differences, particularly in culture and religion, is the primary cause of conflict and violence around the world as he studied the Cold War and the succeeding world events after it.These contradicting thoughts that Huntington shared in his work, he also contradicted by stating how culture and religion are two important factors in promoting unity. In this case, Huntington mentioned how non-A rab Muslims were able to unite as one despite differences of culture and religion and through shared culture and religion. Upon the establishment of the seven civilizations, Huntington continued to discuss various historical evidences that support his claim. This particular issue led to the discussion of the politics between the Arabs and the West which raised violent reactions from the former.Huntington wrote that at present time, the major players in world politics are the West and the Arab nation. Despite internal clashes between different factions or minority groups within the Arab nations, Huntington believes that in the end, it will still find a way to reconcile differences among them and be counter-reactive to the West. Although the statements of Huntington caused a stir within the Arab nation, I believe that Huntington was not pressing violent, hateful, derogatory, or discriminatory issues against the Arab nation.Huntington magnified his discussion on the issue between the A rabs and the West since it is the current international issue or problem Ã¢â¬â the power struggle between the two civilizations which people often hear in the news. Although majority of HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments were based on theories, I believe that everything he said were reflective of the current situations, straying away from the assumption that he wrote the article to present his prejudiced or biased sentiments against the Arab nation.His article was based on decades of historical evidences that created an obvious pattern relaying motivations of war in the past, which was further supported by the 9/11 incident that led to the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York. Huntington was simply observant and articulates enough to present a logical explanation of countless conflicts between nations, which may or may not have some truth to it. Frankly, I believe that major truths are embedded within theories, especially those that lend themselves to conspiratorial issues.Setti ng my personal opinions aside, HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms of other civilization validates the fact that he was not anti-Arab, but simple a man who wanted to illustrate world politics under a cultural context. Huntington criticized the immorality and hypocrisy of the West, stating how the Western civilization has achieved its superiority over other civilizations due to its mindful submission to organized violence in order to achieve its goals and objectives. Moreover, Huntington reiterates that the West does not promote universalism but rather act for world domination.Moreover, Huntington believes that Christian views which originated from the West could not have influenced numerous people around the world if Christians had not come into contact with individuals from the East. Huntington then criticized Western Christianity; and then continued to criticize Western Europe. According to Huntington, some of the concepts of politics and economics claimed by the Western Civilization, particularly Western Europe, did not actually originate from it but from non-Western civilizations in other parts of the world.In general, HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s article was a seemingly balanced representation of his theories on how international conflicts, then and now, were products of cultural and religious differences. The criticisms he posed were not one-sided, attacking the Middle East or the West, or any other civilization for that matter, solely. In fact, HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s theories were open discussions and arguments about the Arab and Western perspectives. Huntington acknowledged how the West is trying to portray a super power estate that works to promote unity, solidarity, democracy, diplomacy, peace, and such.This, he identified as the Western perspective. However, Huntington argued that the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s interests are politically motivated, geared toward staying in power and obtaining control of the majority populations. On one hand, Huntington discussed how the Arab popu lations are trying to overthrow the influence of the West in their land, moving them to resort to threats and violence toward non-Arab and Western nations. For Huntington, the Arab perspective is just patterned after the Ã¢â¬Å"us-versus-themÃ¢â¬ mentality.
Friday, January 3, 2020
The Mexican Revolution broke out in 1910 when the decades-old rule of President Porfirio DÃ az was challenged by Francisco I. Madero, a reformist writer and politician. When DÃ az refused to allow clean elections, Maderos calls for revolution were answered by Emiliano Zapata in the south, and Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa in the north. DÃ az was deposed in 1911, but the revolution was just beginning. By the time it was over, millions had died as rival politicians and warlords fought each other over the cities and regions of Mexico. By 1920, the chickpea farmer and revolutionary general Alvaro ObregÃ ³n had risen to the presidency, primarily by outliving his main rivals. Most historians believe this event marks the end of the revolution, although the violence continued well into the 1920s. The Porfiriato Porfirio DÃ az led Mexico as president from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911. He was an acknowledged but unofficial ruler from 1880 to 1884 as well. His time in power is referred to as the Porfiriato. During those decades, Mexico modernized, building mines, plantations, telegraph lines, and railroads, which brought great wealth to the nation. It came, however, at the cost of repression and grinding debt peonage for the lower classes. DÃ azs close circle of friends benefited greatly, and most of Mexicos vast wealth remained in the hands of a few families. DÃ az ruthlessly clung to power for decades,Ã but after the turn of the century, his grip on the nation started to slip. The people were unhappy: An economic recession caused many to lose their jobs and people began calling for change. DÃ az promised free elections in 1910. DÃ az and Madero DÃ az expected to win easily and legally and was therefore shocked when it became evident that his opponent, Francisco I. Madero, was likely to win. Madero, a reformist writer who came from a wealthy family, was an unlikely revolutionary. He was short and skinny, with a high-pitched voice that became quite shrill when he was excited. A teetotaler and vegetarian, he claimed to be able to speak to ghosts and spirits, including his dead brother and Benito JuÃ ¡rez. Madero didnt have any real plan for Mexico after DÃ az; he simply felt that someone else should rule after decades of Don Porfirio. DÃ az fixed the elections, arresting Madero on false charges of plotting armed insurrection. Madero was bailed out of jail by his father and went to San Antonio, Texas, where he watched DÃ az easily win re-election. Convinced that there was no other way to get DÃ az to step down, Madero called for an armed rebellion; ironically, that was the same charge that had been trumped-up against him. According to Maderos Plan of San Luis Potosi, the insurrection would begin on November 20. Orozco, Villa, and Zapata In the southern state of Morelos, Maderos call was answered by peasant leader Emiliano Zapata, who hoped a revolution would lead to land reform. In the north, muleteer Pascual Orozco and bandit chieftain Pancho Villa also took up arms. All three rallied thousands of men to their rebel armies. In the south, Zapata attacked large ranches called haciendas, giving back land that had been illegally and systematically stolen from peasant villages by DÃ azs cronies. In the north, Villas and Orozcos massive armies attacked federal garrisons wherever they found them, building up impressive arsenals and attracting thousands of new recruits. Villa truly believed in reform; he wanted to see a new, less crooked Mexico. Orozco was more of an opportunist who saw a chance to get in on the ground floor of a movement he was certain would succeed and secure a position of power for himself (such as state governor) with the new regime. Orozco and Villa had great success against the federal forces and in February 1911, Madero returned and joined them in the north. As the three generals closed in on the capital, DÃ az could see the writing on the wall. By May of 1911, it was clear that he could not win, and he went into exile. In June, Madero entered the city in triumph. The Rule of Madero Madero barely had time to get comfortable in Mexico City before things got hot. He faced rebellion on all sides, as he broke all of his promises to those who had supported him and the remnants of DÃ azs regime hated him. Orozco, sensing that Madero was not going to reward him for his role in the overthrow of DÃ az, once again took up arms. Zapata, who had been instrumental in defeating DÃ az, took to the field again when it became clear that Madero had no real interest in land reform. In November of 1911, Zapata wrote up his famous Plan of Ayala, which called for Maderos removal, demanded land reform, and named Orozco Chief of the Revolution. FÃ ©lix DÃ az, the former dictators nephew, declared himself in open rebellion in Veracruz. By the middle of 1912, Villa was Maderos only remaining ally, although Madero did not realize it. The greatest challenge to Madero was none of these men, however, but one much closer: General Victoriano Huerta, a ruthless, alcoholic soldier left over from the DÃ az regime. Madero had sent Huerta to join forces with Villa and defeat Orozco. Huerta and Villa despised one another but managed to drive off Orozco, who fled to the United States. After returning to Mexico City, Huerta betrayed Madero during a standoff with forces loyal to FÃ ©liz DÃ az. He ordered Madero arrested and executed and set himself up as president. The Huerta Years With the quasi-legitimate Madero dead, the country was up for grabs. Two more major players entered the fray. In Coahuila, the former governor Venustiano Carranza took to the field and in Sonora, chickpea farmer and inventor Alvaro ObregÃ ³n raised an army and entered the action. Orozco returned to Mexico and allied himself with Huerta, but the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ of Carranza, ObregÃ ³n, Villa, and Zapata were united in their hatred of Huerta and determined to oust him from power. Orozcos support was not nearly enough. With his forces fighting on several fronts, Huerta was steadily pushed back. A great military victory might have saved him, as it would have drawn recruits to his banner, but when Pancho Villa won a crushing victory at the Battle of Zacatecas on June 23, 1914, it was over. Huerta fled to exile, and although Orozco fought on for a while in the north, he too went into exile in the United States before too long. The Warlords at War With the despised Huerta out of the way, Zapata, Carranza, ObregÃ ³n, and Villa were the four most powerful men in Mexico. Unfortunately for the nation, the only thing they had ever agreed on was that they did not want Huerta in charge, and they soon fell to fighting one another. In October of 1914, representatives of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ as well as several smaller independents met at the Convention of Aguascalientes, hoping to agree on a course of action that would bring peace to the nation. Unfortunately, the peace efforts failed, and the Big Four went to war: Villa against Carranza and Zapata against anyone who entered his fiefdom in Morelos. The wild card was ObregÃ ³n; fatefully, he decided to stick with Carranza. The Rule of Carranza Venustiano Carranza felt that as a former governor, he was the only one of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ qualified to rule Mexico, so he set himself up in Mexico City and began organizing elections. His trump card was the support of ObregÃ ³n, a genius military commander who was popular with his troops. Even so, he did not fully trust ObregÃ ³n, so he shrewdly sent him after Villa, hoping, no doubt, that the two would finish each other off so that he could deal with the pesky Zapata and FÃ ©lix DÃ az at his leisure. ObregÃ ³n headed north to engage Villa in a clash of two of the most successful revolutionary generals. ObregÃ ³n had been doing his homework, however, reading up on trench warfare being fought abroad. Villa, on the other hand, still relied on the one trick that had carried him so often in the past: an all-out charge by his devastating cavalry. The two met several times, and Villa always got the worst of it. In April of 1915, at the Battle of Celaya, ObregÃ ³n fought off countless cavalry charges with barbed wire and machine guns, thoroughly routing Villa. The next month, the two met again at the Battle of Trinidad and 38 days of carnage ensued. ObregÃ ³n lost an arm at Trinidad, but Villa lost the war. His army in tatters, Villa retreated to the north, destined to spend the rest of the revolution on the sidelines. In 1915, Carranza set himself up as president pending elections and won the recognition of the United States, which was hugely important to his credibility. In 1917, he won the elections he had set up and began the process of stamping out remaining warlords, such as Zapata and DÃ az. Zapata was betrayed, set up, ambushed, and assassinated on April 10, 1919, on Carranzas orders. ObregÃ ³n retired to his ranch with the understanding that he would leave Carranza alone, but he expected to take over as president after the 1920 elections. The Rule of ObregÃ ³n Carranza reneged on his promise to support ObregÃ ³n in 1920, which proved to be a fatal mistake. ObregÃ ³n still enjoyed the support of much of the military, and when it became apparent that Carranza was going to install little-known Ignacio Bonillas as his successor, ObregÃ ³n quickly raised a massive army and marched on the capital. Carranza was forced to fleeÃ and was assassinated by supporters of ObregÃ ³n on May 21, 1920. ObregÃ ³n was easily elected in 1920 and served his four-year term as president. For this reason, many historians believe the Mexican Revolution ended in 1920, although the nation suffered from horrible violence for another decade or so until the level-headed LÃ ¡zaro CÃ ¡rdenas took office. ObregÃ ³n ordered the assassination of Villa in 1923 and was himself shot to death by a Roman Catholic fanatic in 1928, ending the time of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big Four.Ã¢â¬ Women in the Revolution Before the revolution, women in Mexico were relegated to a traditional existence, working in the home and in the fields with their men and wielding little political, economic, or social clout. With the revolution came an opportunity for participation and many women joined up, serving as writers, politicians, and even soldiers. Zapatas army, in particular, was known for the number of female soldaderas among the ranks and even serving as officers. Women who participated in the revolution were reluctant to return to their quiet lifestyle after the dust had settled, and the revolution marks an important milestone in the evolution of Mexican womens rights. Importance of the Revolution In 1910, Mexico still had a largely feudal social and economic base: rich landowners ruled like medieval dukes on large estates, keeping their workers impoverished, deep in debt, and with barely enough basic necessities to survive. There were some factories, but the basis of the economy was still mostly in agriculture and mining. Porfirio DÃ az had modernized much of Mexico, including laying train tracks and encouraging development, but the fruits of all of this modernization went exclusively to the rich. A drastic change was obviously necessary for Mexico to catch up with other nations, which were developing industrially and socially. Because of this, some historians feel that the Mexican Revolution was a necessary Ã¢â¬Å"growing pain for the backward nation. This view tends to gloss over the sheer destruction wrought by 10 years of war and mayhem. DÃ az may have played favorites with the wealthy, but much of the good that he didÃ¢â¬ârailways, telegraph lines, oil wells, buildingsÃ¢â¬âwere destroyed in a classic case of Ã¢â¬Å"throwing the baby out with the bathwater.Ã¢â¬ By the time Mexico was once again stable, hundreds of thousands had died, development had been set back by decades, and the economy was in ruins. Mexico is a nation with tremendous resources, including oil, minerals, productive agricultural land, and hard-working people, and its recovery from the revolution was bound to be relatively speedy. The biggest obstacle to recovery was corruption, and the 1934 election of the honest LÃ ¡zaro CÃ ¡rdenas gave the nation a chance to get back on its feet. Today, there are few scars left from the revolution itself, and Mexican schoolchildren may not even recognize the names of minor players in the conflict such as Felipe Angeles or Genovevo de la O. The lasting effects of the revolution have all been cultural. The PRI, the party that was born in the revolution, held onto power for decades. Emiliano Zapata, the symbol of land reform and proud ideological purity, has become an international icon for just rebellion against a corrupt system. In 1994, a rebellion broke out in Southern Mexico; its protagonists called themselves the Zapatistas and declared that Zapatas revolution was still in progress and would be until Mexico adopted true land reform. Mexico loves a man with personality, and the charismatic Pancho Villa lives on in art, literature, and legend, while the dour Venustiano Carranza has been all but forgotten. The revolution has proven to be a deep well of inspiration for Mexicos artists and writers. The muralists, including Diego Rivera, remembered the revolution and painted it often. Modern writers such as Carlos Fuentes have set novels and stories in this turbulent era, and films such as Laura Esquivels Like Water for Chocolate take place against the revolutionary backdrop of violence, passion, and change. These works romanticize the gory revolution in many ways, but always in the name of the inner search for national identity that continues in Mexico today. Source McLynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. Basic Books, August 15, 2002.