Saturday, August 31, 2019

High School and Different Political Changes Essay

In chapter 9 of Assault on Paradise Kottak discusses the different political changes that Arembepe went through as well as how it affected the villager’s everyday life, and how it could possibly change the way Arembepeiros live in the future and effect their future generations. Throughout the chapter Kottak discusses many things, but he hits on about 4 main topics, Welfare and Education, Public Health, Marriage and the State, and the sex Ratio and Female status. In the beginning of the Chapter Kottak describes that the Arembepian government lowered the age that people needed to be to be eligible for government pensions. They lowered the age from 65 to 60. This may seem like a small change but it actually can have a large effect on the government’s ability to pay for it. When looked at in comparison to the United States’ social security, one could see that 5 years could add a large amount of people taking away from the â€Å"pot† essentially. This could cause serious problems in the United States, so this is surprising to see this type of change in such a small and not so wealthy ethnic group. This is an example of Arembepe becoming a larger, more contributing society, or it even becoming a state of its own. The second political change that Arembepe went through was a national census. This was something that was very big for Arembepe; this pretty much solidified it as a state. Kottak explained that â€Å"the head of statistical services for the municipality told [him] about the plans for the national census. Scheduled to begin in September 1980.† (Kottak 130) In the early 1960s Arembepe was just a small tribe it seemed like, they had come so far. They now had town centers, one-way and two-way streets, supermarkets, a commercial center, several pharmacies, doctors’ offices, labs, and even other medical services! This was a completely different place than it had been just a few decades earlier. Another politic al change that occurred was that people now had to pay licensing fees to the municipality for their stores, bars, and restaurants. This was also a big deal, it seemed that all of the things Kottak states in the chapter up to this point all solidify the validity of Arembepe as a state, and even a nation. This new licensing was also a big contrast from the 1960s when only the owners of the two largest stores had to pay those fees. â€Å"Municipal officials inspected weights and measures, and there was regular mail delivery. The streets had formal names, street signs, and house numbers.† (Kottak 131) All of these are examples of just how much Arembepe had grown and how legitimized it was becoming. Now the rest of Brazil was seeing it in a different light. They were â€Å"pulling their own weight† now, essentially. They were being a contributing member, or a contributing band, to a much larger state. Documents that were never required before were, and are not required. â€Å"Full names were used in legal documents, and people were more familiar with the last names of fellow villagers. Most adults now had identity papers.† (Kottak 131) They were becoming a much more organized and legitimate society. Kottak even explained in the chapter that once they started using these documents that you could in fact be penalized, and even jailed if they were stopped by police and did not have a valid ID. Another pattern that the Arembepe people were doing was joining the armed forces. It was almost like â€Å"the thing to do,† or at least it was becoming that. Kottak explained that â€Å"after junior high school, many local boys now presented themselves to the army, air force, or navy.† (Kottak 131) He also explained that joining the military was almost something that was just done, almost an unsaid thing. Like getting married, or wearing socks. You just do it because your parents did it, and your friends do it. It is just part of their culture. It is almost like a diffusion of American culture. Or at least how American culture used to be. Kottak also explains that when you do join the armed forces in Arembepe and you are released, or leave. You have a better chance of getting a job, sometimes even a better job than those who weren’t in the armed forces. The fourth, and possibly the most important political change Arembepe went through was the Basic Education Reform Law of 1971. This law was extremely important to Arembepe because it mandated 8 years of education (in primary and junior high school). â€Å"The new law also set a national core curriculum of general studies, including practical courses to determine vocational aptitudes in grades five through eight,† Kottak explained on page 131. Kottak also describes that the main reason that they instituted this because they wanted to prepare these children, or young adults, for the workforce and employment. They had a new junior high school and two elementary schools, which had five competent teachers. By 1980, Arembepe had really buckled down on education. It was taken much more seriously and was given much more money. By this time they had to wear uniforms, pay fees, and buy books and supplies. Public health is the fifth political change Arembepe went through. They had improved a little bit but not by much. There was a clinic that was set up in Arembepe but the practicing doctor was only there 2 days a week. There were 2 nurses that were staffed. If there was an emergency the Arembepe people had to go to the Tibras, the city hospital. Sanitation problems still existed although they were trying to make it better. Arembepe was just very far behind in many things, but still had come a long way. Overall they were becoming a much more valid city, and state. From reading the beginning chapters to what they had changed they have been successful in many things. Although they still had a long way to go, they had come a long way from where they had started. When the government became more involved in Arembepe it really did a lot for the people there.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Within the maximum of 500 words, prove that there is a moral lesson implied in the novel “The picture of Dorian Gray”

Oscar Wilde is one of the greatest literary showmen of the English nineteenth century. Of all his works, his only novel â€Å"†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is considered his masterpiece. In this novel, a moral lesson can be implied: Corruption will lead to destruction, obsession and torture. A moral lesson is experience that one can learn from a story and this lesson follows the standards of behavior considered acceptable and right by most people. A moral lesson implied when people suggest that something be true without actually saying it or suggests something as a necessary result. In this novel, the moral lesson is not directly delivered to the readers. It could only be found when people analyze what happens to the main character- Dorian Gray, what cause leads to what effect. At first, Dorian Gray appears to be something ideal and beautiful: young, handsome, innocent, simple and sensitive. He becomes the embodiment of Lord Henry’s ideas of the aesthetic life. Dorian soon leaves Basil’s studio for Lord Henry’s parlor, where he adopts the tenets of â€Å"the new Hedonism† and resolves to live his life as pleasure- seeker with no regard for conventional morality. He devotes himself to love in the beginning. Then he go from lover to lover, male and female and he pursues pleasure dispassionately. After that, he kills Basil, unable to accept the kind of love Basil is showing him. Dorian does not have a developed moral sense which would recognize a moral imperative- the idea that something is wrong no matter whether one ever has to pay to any consequences for them. He only regards acts as wrong when he can see their effects on the countenance of the figure in the portrait. He seems to separate the body and brain: â€Å"The body sins†¦ regret†. If body’s sin is natural, the soul should be responsible for physical action. Where sin has been committed, everything will be over and selfish is irresponsible thinking. At the end of the novel, Dorian is punished by his conscience, his innate and inner judge. He is torture badly for a long period leading to a tragic death. It is not the only thing he has to pay for his sins. The corruption from others leads to his destruction, bsession and torture. In the end, Dorian seems to be punished by his ability to be influenced: if the new social order celebrates individualism, as Lord Henry claims, Dorian falters because he fails to establish and live by his own moral code. In our life, we need to be alert in front of the seductions that are popular nowadays: hedonism and immoral pleasures. If not, we may be affected badly by the materialism leading to regrettable consequences.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Human Factors in Aviation Essay

A large number of flight accidents occur mostly due to lack of efficient vision of the surrounding environment. Traditional visionary systems rely on synthetic vision or specifically vision of the existing environment devoid of mist, fog and other abnormalities. Real scenarios require the ability to provide reliable vision overcoming natural hindrances. Humans learnt the art of flying when they abandoned the idea of flapping of wings. Similarly, the latest developments of enhanced vision systems have sidestepped the existing traditional vision systems to ensure flight safety. In recent years, Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFID) has posed a significant risk in both civilian and military aviation. One of the aviation’s worst accident occurred in Tenerife, when two Boeing 747’s collided as one aircraft was attempting to take off while the other was to land. The risk of CFID can be greatly reduced with the aid of a suite of Radar and collision avoidance equipment commonly termed as Enhanced Vision systems (EVS). Rationale One of the primary causes for many runway accidents is reduced visibility. One solution to this limitation lies in the use of infrared sensing in aviation operations. All objects on earth emit infrared radiation and their emissions and features can be detected through total darkness as well as intervening mist, rain, haze, smoke and other scenarios, when the objects are invisible to the human eye (Kerr, 2004). The first EVS system was targeted for production in 2001 as standard equipment on Gulf Stream GVSP aircraft. The system was developed in part by Kolesman Inc under the technology license from Advanced Technologies, Inc. utilization of EVS addressed critical areas like CIFT avoidance, general safety enhancements during approach, landing and take off, improved detection of trees, power lines and other obstacles, improved visibility in brown out conditions, improved visibility in haze and rain, identify rugged and sloping terrain and detect runway incursions. Enhanced Vision Systems Enhanced visibility system is an electronic means to provide a display of the forward external scene topology through the use of infrared imaging sensors. They are a combination of near term designs and long term designs. Near term designs present sensor imagery with super-imposed flight symbology on a Head up display (HUD) and may include such enhancements as runway outlines, other display argumentations like obstacles, taxiways and flight corridors. Long term designs include complete replacement of the out-the window scene with a combination of electro optical and sensory information. Infrared Sensors EVS uses Infrared (IR) sensors that detect and measure the levels of infrared radiation emitted continuously by all objects. An object’s radiation level is a function of its temperature with warmer objects emitting more radiation. The infrared sensor measures these emission levels which are then processed to produce a thermal image of the sensor’s forward field of view. EVS IR sensors operate in the Infrared spectrum (Kerr, 2004). The different types of spectrum are Long wave IR, Medium wave IR and Low wave IR. Two variants of this technology are currently in aircraft use. A single sensor unit operating in the long wave, maximum weather penetration band has significant far penetrating capability. Short wave sensors have the ability to enhance the acquisition of runway lighting. A dual sensor variant composed of short and long wave bands used for both light and weather penetration fuses both sensor images for a full spectrum view. Image sensors operating in long wave Infrared spectrum are Cyro-cooled. Models of EVS One of the commonly used EVS systems is EVS 2000. The operation of the model EVS 2000 dual image sensor is given in figure 1. Long Wave Infrared sensor provides best weather penetration, ambient background and terrain features. Similarly, the Short Wave Sensor provides best detection of lighting, runway outline and obstacle lights. The signal processor combines the images of both the sensors to display a fused image picturizing the current environment (Kerr, Luk, Hammerstrom, and Misha, 2003). (Source: Kerr et al, 2003) Boeing Enhanced Vision System Boeing’s EVS enhances situational awareness by providing electronic and real time vision to the pilots. It provides information at low level, night time and moderate to heavy weather operations during all phases of flight. It has a series of imaging sensors, navigational terrain database with a virtual pathway for approach during landings, an EVS image processor and a wide field of view, C-through helmet mounted display integrated with a head tracker. It also consists of a synthetic vision system accompanying the EVS to present a computer generated image of the out-the window view in areas that are not covered by the imaging sensors of the EVS. The EVS image processor performs the following 3 functions. It compares the image scanned by the ground mapping Radar and the MMW sensor with a database to present a computer generated image of the ground terrain conditions. It is accompanied by a Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide a location map during all phases of flight. The IR imaging sensors provide a thermal image of the front line of view of the aircraft. Typical HUD symbology including altitude, air speed, pressure, etc is added without any obscuration of the underlined scene. The SV imagery provides a three dimensional view of a clear window site with reference to the stored on board database. Figure 2 gives the Boeing’s EVS/SV integrated system. The projection of SV data should be confirmed by the EVS data so that the images register accurately. The system provides for three basic views i. e. , flight to view or the normal view, the map views at different altitudes or ranges and the orbiting view or an exocentric/ownership from any orbiting location from the vehicle (Jennings, Alter, Barrow, Bernier and Guell, 2003). (Source: Jennings et al, 2003) EVS Image processing and Integration Association Engine Approach This is a neural net inspired self organizing associating memory approach that can be implemented in FPGA based boards of moderate cost. It constitutes a very efficient implementation of best match association at high real time video rates. It is highly robust in the face of noisy and obscured image inputs. This means of image representation emulates the human visual pathway. A preprocessor performs the feature extraction of edges as well as potentially higher levels of abstraction in order to generate a large, sparse and random binary vector for each image frame. The features are created by looking for 0 crossings after filtering with a laplacian of guassian filter and thereby finding edges. Each edge image is then thresholded by taking the K strongest features setting those to 1 and all others to 0. For multiple images, the feature vectors are strung together to create a composite vector. The operations are performed over a range of multi resolution hyper pixels including those for 3-D images. FPGA provides a complete solution by offering the necessary memory bandwidth, significant parallelism and low precision tolerance. Figure 3 provides an illustration of an association engine operation (Kerr et al, 2003). Fig 3: Association Engine Operation (Source Kerr et al, 2003) DSP Approach One approach to perform multi sensor image enhancement and fusion is the Retinex algorithm evolved at the NASA Langley research center. Digital signal processors from Texas instruments have been used to successfully implement a real-time version of Retinex. C6711, C6713 and DM642 are some of the commercial digital signal processors (DSP) used for image processing. Image processing which is a subset of digital signal processing enables fusion of images from various sensors to aid in efficient navigation. Figure 4: EVS Image Processing (Source: Hines et al, 2005) Image processing architecture and functions of EVS, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) processing can be done simultaneously. The multi spectral data streams are registered to remove field of view and spatial resolution differences between the cameras and to correct inaccuracies. Registration of Long Wave IR data to the Short Wave IR is performed by selecting SWIR as the base line and applying affine transform to the LWIR imagery. LaRC patented Retinex algorithm is used to enhance the information content of the captured imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. The Retinex can also be used as a fusion engine since the algorithm performs nearly symmetrically processing on multi-spectral data and applies multiple scaling operations on each spectral band. The fused video stream contains more information than the individual spectral bands and provides the pilot a single output which can be interpreted easily. Figure 4 illustrates the various processing stages in fusing a multi spectral image (Hines et al, 2005). Design Tradeoffs LWIR based single image system is no panacea for fog, but reduces hardware requirements. It is also a low cost solution with lower resolution. An image fusion system provides active penetration of fog and better resolution but comes at a higher cost. Increasing the bandwidth provides better size and angular resolution and satisfactory atmospheric transmission but costs high. Basic diffraction physics limits the true angular resolution but can be overcome by providing sufficient over sampling. Sensitivity vs. update rate and physical size vs. resolution have traditionally been issues with passive cameras. Fortunately, dual mode sensors overcome these trade offs (Kerr et all, 2003). A successful image capture of landing scenario is given in figure 5. Figure 5. EVS view Vs. Pilots view (source: Yerex, 2006) Human Factors Controlling the aircraft during the entire period of flight is the sole responsibility of the pilot. The pilot seeks guidance from the co-pilot, control tower and inbuilt EVS to successfully steer the aircraft. The pilot controls the aircraft based on a representation of the world displayed in the cockpit given by the inbuilt systems and may not see the actual out-the-window visual scene. Visual information is presented but may not otherwise be visible. Some of the information may be lost due to limitations of resolution, field of view or spectral sensitivities. Therefore, with EVS, the world is not viewed directly but as a representation through sensors and computerized databases. More importantly, the essential data for pilotage should be available on the display. Though EVS systems gives a representation of the exact view of the flight environment, its accuracy plays a significant role in flight safety. Thus human factor are vital for flight control.

Risk & Return Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Risk & Return - Assignment Example The term business risk is used to refer to the uncertainty associated with the future projections or expectations that company holds in relation to the returns from the business (Besley, 2008). This risk is calculated either on the basis of assets or it may be calculated in terms of equity. In other words an organization tries to identify the return or loss it will face by investing a certain amount of money in assets or the return the company will gain by investing money that it has obtained through the measure of equity financing. If an organization does not obtain money from external sources and only obtains money from internal shareholders, the business risk is calculated in terms of the risks associated with organization’s own operations. The level of business risk an organization experiences is dependent on the stability of its operations. A business is said to have stable operation when organization experiences a steady flow of sales and purchases over a long period of time and there are lower chances that there will be any changes in these trends. A business is said to have unstable operations when the demand and supply of that business is difficult to predict or keeps on changing. For example: a power supplying monopoly is said to have lower risk of business since it is the only supplier and consumers do not have different options to choose from so its sales may not decline or fluctuate in the long run. A business that has stable operations is said to have lower business risk because it can easily meet its debt requirements in future through its sales and returns. On the other hand, a business that is unstable may not be able to meet its debt requirements on time and that is why such a business is said to have a higher business risk. An organization’s financial is risk is denoted as the risk that an organization experiences other than its business risk and is

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

COMMUNICATION IN SOCIAL CARE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

COMMUNICATION IN SOCIAL CARE - Essay Example The hospitals that Dr. Steven visits get a large number of people from the mainstream population which is predominantly white. However, he occasionally gets to see people from diverse cultural backgrounds, especially immigrants from the Middle Eastern countries like Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Ahmed Babak is an Iranian man who migrated in the late 1990s with his wife, Alicia Baig who is from the same country. After living in the UK for the last decade, Alicia is having problems with her husband who wants her to continue to wear hijab and prevents her from working at office. She wanted to take help from extended family members, some of who live in the same city, but Ameer Baig was not interested. Ahmed has been suffering from depression and memory loss and had been referred to Dr. Steven through the NHS. Dr. Steven has not been able to make a rapport with Ahmed, who feels intimidated by the six feet two doctor. He is reluctant to share the private and intimate details of his married life with someone who is a foreigner. Dr. Steven feels that Ahmed is from a relatively inhibited culture and that he needs to have more confidence in himself and be open about the realities. Ahmed also is not very fluent with English and he finds it difficult to understand Dr. Steven’s words. ... Ahmed does not want to sit alone with Dr. Steven and feels physically intimidated and overwhelmed in most of the sessions, while the Doctor has to rake his brains to put anything across his patient. PART B: 1. Skills for Effective Communication The above case study shows that the there are basic communication issues related to the differences in the social and cultural differences between the practitioner and the service user. Some of the skills that could be useful for better communication under the conditions are elaborated upon in the paragraphs below. 1.1 Skills: Understanding the Cultural and Social Context in order to Create Empathy and Security for the service user As per the communication theory of social constructionist, any communication is assumed to be based on the sharing of ideas and thoughts, the interpretation of which is rooted in the social dynamics of the people involved (Ritzer, 2008). The interaction between Dr. Steven and his client is a true reflection of the t heory, as though the duo are engaged in communication, their very different socio-cultural contexts make them have preconceived notions about each other and also prevent them from understanding each other’s messages correctly. For example, Dr. Steven is from a UK background, being born and educated in the UK and having faith in the Western methods and approaches to psychological therapy. He relies on the patients to provide him with information and details directly and explicitly, so that he may formulate a plan of action and therapy for them. However, in the case of Ahmed, he is from a Muslim Arab culture where direct conversations of personal issues and that too with strangers are

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Have infant and toddler educational videos impacted quality parental Research Paper

Have infant and toddler educational videos impacted quality parental interaction - Research Paper Example As a result, television becomes not only their favorite pastime, but a tool for learning. With the impact of television among the children aged 2, which almost takes over the lives of these children, their development, the biggest concern is their involvement with their parents, which weakens due to time they spend watching TV (Courage & Setliff, 2009). Videos and television have become the contemporary educators, which, some analysts argue, have taken over the role of parents for these children. This essay shall undertake an analytical research to assess the declining ability of the parents to act as the educators and trainers of their children and how most of them have been reduced to mere ‘watchmen’. The essay shall incorporate the works of numerous analysts and researchers in the quest to assess the validity and application of the title of the work in today’s society. In the research compiled by Garrison and Christakis (2005), many toddlers are addicted to videos in one way or another, especially the ones that teach them new songs, how to read, and how to play various forms of music. Most of the parents also do not have time to play with their children and teach them new games, an aspect that reduces the toddler to learning new games from the frequent programs, and videos aired on television and films related to play for the toddlers. An encouragement of the parents to allocate time for their children especially for play means that the kind of interaction present in the two parties is actually doubtful. To clarify the intensity of the problem facing the toddlers who need ‘touch’ from their parents, videos have been produced that relate to the toddlers. These videos consist of colors, games, words and letters that provide the basis for introduction to toddler education. Though some analysts are of the opinion that

Monday, August 26, 2019

Hezbollah Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hezbollah - Term Paper Example ah has continued to engage in terrorist activities throughout the Middle East and currently has a militant wing of the organization that is understood as larger than that of the standing national army of Lebanon. Yet, Hezbollah cannot be understood as a native insurgency that developed within Lebanon. Instead, it was initially begun as a response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982. Seeing this as an opportunity to further its influence throughout the globe, Iran developed and funded this group as a means of taking the battle directly to the Jewish state. With Iranian backing and financing, the group developed rapidly and came to serve as a fundamental voice within Lebanon and throughout the region. Hezbollah has been linked to over 36 suicide attacks and terrorist bombings since 1982 (Hamdar, 2014). Moreover, the number of targeted assassinations that Hezbollah is responsible for is something that is up for much debate; estimated to be within the hundreds or thousands. Whereas enemies for Hezbollah have come and gone (for instance the American, French, and British interests have been listed at one time or another as targets for the group), its animosity and hatred for Israel has been the one mainstay that has helped to continue to define the gropu throughout the years. As such, at each and every point in which Israel has come in direct conflict with Lebanon, Hezbollah has used this as an opportunity to drastically swell its ranks and engage in pitched and indirect warfare with Israeli forces or target Israeli interests throughout Lebanon and the greater Middle East. More recently, the tug of war between Russia, Iran, Israel, and others over Syria has meant that Hezbollah has come to serve as a powerful supporter of Bashar al Assad. As a function of this and subsequent indirect support from both Russia and Iran, Hezbollah has been one of the primary foreign forces that have served to bolster to strength of the Syrian regime; as it lies virtually

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Evaluation of General Plan (urban planning course) Essay

Evaluation of General Plan (urban planning course) - Essay Example Additionally, the general plan seeks to enhance service delivery to the current residents of the city. The city has a general plan that provides an accurate guideline for ensuring economic development in the city. The authorities plan to improve the workforce, create jobs, maintain local airports, and improve the downtown area. Early this year, the planning and development department of the city of Phoenix developed and updated an elaborative and achievable general plan. The final plan was hugely based on the community suggestion and feedback concerning various economic problems in the city. As a result, the planning commission supported and approved the general plan on January 13, 2015. The city plans to improve on the type of labor force available. According to the article Plan PHX. 2015 General Plan, the economic growth and development sterns from skilled, competent, and qualified workforce in the city (94). Consequently, the expansion and building of more schools and training centers is the foundation for the city’s economic growth. Furthermore, the authorities plan to adequately fund and provide necessary resources in these training facilities. It leads to increase in the number of individuals with recognized credentials and certificates. Such an influx of professionals is a sign of economic gr owth and development. Additionally, the authorities plan to maintain and expand the airports available in the city since it is vital to economic growth and movement of people. The airports in the city are essential and necessary for bringing various businessmen and investors in the city. Furthermore, these airports generate massive revenue for the authorities. The revenues collected from businesses within the airport premises are essential in improving local infrastructure and financial strength of the city. Besides, the presence of businessmen and investors in Phoenix city is a positive and encouraging sign of

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Health care reform to address access Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health care reform to address access - Essay Example Nevertheless, it will enhance access to affordable healthcare for children, cancer patients, and underserved communities, through drug discounts propelled by 340B programs. Moreover, the legislation stands to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare by availing medical services to all individuals in America and especially those who have joined Medicare and Medicaid. There will also be sustainable efforts to improve the delivery of care and support research, which will inform clients on issues relating to patient outcomes, and patient models will be developed and distributed. Health care practitioners and patients residing from rural areas will recognize the tremendous improvements together with advancements in payment accuracy. In addition, there will be improvements in access to innovative medical therapies through innovation and biologics price competition. With the establishment of the legislation, FDA will be in a position to license biological products that are shown to be either biosimilar or interchangeable to reference product (Kaiser, 2014). The basic values that underlie the approach to solving the access to health care problems include; focusing on provisions to expand medical cover for individuals and families in the United States, enacting measures to control health care and related medical costs to make it affordable to all individuals in America, and continuous improvement health care delivery system. The stated values do not align to any specific political perspective, but instead touch on the health benefit of every American citizen. As a policy maker, I would use the following approach to ensure success, establishment of market reforms, creating of insurance market places, and expansion of Medicaid programs (, 2014). This is because; every state requires compliance with market reforms to ensure access to cover for young adults, provision of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Organisational Changes within NHS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Organisational Changes within NHS - Essay Example It aims to promote health by best utilization of the resources, and is keen in introducing frameworks for vertical integration, elective factories, disease management, and APMS. (Integrated models, 2006) the support of the UK government in this regard has been through the introduction of a ten year modernization plan of NHS, (Department of Health, Quality in service, 1998) It would have been a much different picture had it been viewed around five years ago. NHS has been playing its part even before the 1940s, where it gave "universal coverage and overly effective cost containment". (Stevens, 2004) NHS had a very low per capita health in the year 2000, as opposed to Germany, USA, Canada and France. (OECD, 2003) The resulting infrastructure was weak, marked by less health care facilities, both in quality and quantity. Another motivation factor was the increased and high profile reporting of grave medical errors in the UK. (Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry Team, 2000) This was mainly found in the hospital sector with factors such as hospital performance data, increased cost of hospital care, and public interest in high tech medicine being the encouraging factors. (MN, 1999) In this regard, the role of primary care as a health care provider is becoming a new area for funding and development. (Roland et al, 1999) C The introduction of proposal to increase the NHS funding by the Blair administration since its election has markedly increased the standards of healthcare in the UK. Campbell (2005) has also given positive feedback on the state of development of health care in the UK. In his study regarding improvements in healthcare quality in general health care practice, he observes a rise in the status of health care from the years 1998-2003.(Campbell,2005). His study was based on the three major chronic health care services, i.e. chronic heart disease, asthma and Type II diabetes. He appreciates the role NHS has played in this regard. (Campbell, 2005) NHS has been lauded for achieving its goals regarding patient waiting lists, cardiac surgery or A and E, as well as many small innovations in improving the overall condition of the institution. (Transition arrangements in NHS, 2006) In line with promoting the developments taking place, the introduction of integration models is one sector actively pursued and evaluated. The models that have been suggested are hospital integration of primary health care and disease management, primary care integration to divide load of hospitals onto practices, localities or APMS providers, or medical group practice models. (Integrated models of health care delivery, 2006) The introduction of the afore mentioned contributions as well as suggestions for new systems all promise a further acceleration in the progress of health care facilities in the UK. It is therefore important to highlight these efforts so as to attain a better assessment of the progress carried out in this regard. The planning and implementation of the long term strategies comes under the care of the NSFs, or National Service Frameworks, part of the NHS. The NSFs plans "strategies and measurable goals within set time frames."(NSFs, 2006) NSF works in alliance with ERGs, or External Reference Groups, which combine the various aspects of health care

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Phenomenon of Aging Essay Example for Free

The Phenomenon of Aging Essay Aging is an existential phenomenon, which is a natural part of development of universal significance (Erickson, 1963 Havighurst, 1959, in Ponzo, 1992). It is a biological, psychological, and sociological phenomenon. People have specific tasks to accomplish, as they grow older. For example, Erickson views middle age and late adulthood as a time when the individual must develop a sense of generativity and ego integrity or become stagnant and despairing. Jung (1969) believes spirituality is a domain that those over 40 are uniquely qualified to explore. Despite an increased understanding of aging and an ever-growing number of older adults, the elderly have to deal with age-based expectations and prejudices. As with other minority groups, elderly individuals are subject to negative stereotypes and discrimination. For instance, â€Å"older people often are tagged with uncomplimentary labels such as senile, absentminded, and helpless† (McCracken, Hayes, Dell, 1997, in Gladding, 2000). This negative attitudes and stereotypes, which are known as ageism, prevent intimate encounters with people in different age groups and sometimes lead to outright discrimination (Butler Lewis, 1973; Bulter et al., 1998). In a review of attitudes towards older individuals, Atkinson and Hackett (1998) found that elderly persons are considered to be rigid, and not adaptable in their thought processes; thought to be in poor health and not very intelligent or alert; inappropriate to have sexual interest or activity. Negative attitude toward elderly persons were present in college students, and among medical staff who feel uncomfortable around elderly patients. Jokes about old age abound and are primarily negative in nature. These negative stereotypes lead to elderly peoples being viewed as less valued members of society. Older women are even more likely to be viewed negatively by society as a whole. Elderly individuals may come to accept these views and suffer a loss of self-esteem (Sue Sue, 1999). Unfortunately, individuals who are growing old often deny and dread the process, a phenomenon that Friedan (1993, in Belsky, 1999) calls â€Å"the age mystique. † Even counselors are not immune to ageist attitudes (Belsky, 1999). Healthy Old Age Old age can be emotionally healthy and a satisfying time of life with a minimum of physical and mental impairment. Butler et al. (1998) observed that besides the general lack of interest in older persons, science and medicine have been more concerned with treating â€Å"what went wrong† than with clarifying the complex, interwoven elements necessary to produce and support health. Medicine and the behavioral sciences have mirrored societal attitudes by presenting old age as a grim litany of physical and emotional illness. Until 1960, most of the medical, psychological, psychiatric, and social work literature on the aged was based on experience with the sick and the institutionalized, even though only 5% of the older people were confined to institutions. Decline of the individual was the key concept. Fortunately, research studies that have concentrated on the healthy aged give indications of positive potential for the entire age group. What is healthy old age? In 1994, the World Health Organization first defined health as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. † This represents an ideal with many possible interpretations. But the broad elements of health -physical, emotional, and social- is the framework in which one can begin to analyze what is going on well in addition to what is going wrong. The attempt must be made to locate those conditions that enable humans to thrive, not merely survive. The unique developmental task in old age is to clarify, deepen, and find use for what one has already attained in a lifetime of learning and adapting (Butler et al.1998). Erickson (1963) stated it as ego integrity, the psychosocial task of later life involving accepting one’s life in order to accept impending death. The possessor of this integrity is ready to defend the dignity of his or her own life style against all odds, and they know that life has meaning. Paradoxically this sense of personal significance allows them to accept their insignificance in life-that is, the reality of death (Belsky, 1999). According to Atchely (1994) Butler et al. (1998) the ability of the older person to adapt and thrive is contingent on physical health, personality, earlier life experiences, and on the societal supports he or she receives; adequate finances, shelter, medical care, social roles, recreation, and the like. As is true of children, adolescents, and middle-aged, it is imperative that older people continue to develop and change in a flexible manner if health is to be promoted and maintained. Optimal growth and adaptation can occur throughout the life cycle when the individual’s strength and potentials are recognized, reinforced and encouraged by the environment in which he or she lives.

Homelands Golf Club Essay Example for Free

Homelands Golf Club Essay Great Chart golf club is a local competitor meaning they are close by to the business. They are in the same town. They are a competitor because they sell the same products and services. They sell golf accessories and clubs in the pro shop. Also they do such services the same as buckets of balls on the driving range, the pitch and putt, and lessons. They target all ages mostly older people but a lot of children attend to group lessons. Were they meet and make new golf friends. They attract people who are new to golf because they have effective cheap lessons and easy facilities for new golfers. From Ashford follow A28 towards Tenterden, turn right at the roundabout by Matalan store, signposted Great Chart. Take the first right as you enter the village (Ninn Lane). Follow this lane for a mile and a half, (look for the Bear signs), round a sharp right hand bend and the complex is on the left. St Andrews Golf Club St Andrews is a national competitor. A national competitor is a business located in the United Kingdom. They are a competitor because they offer the same services. The services they provide are green fees to the golf club. These are very expensive; they also offer golf clubs and accessories for sale. They target middle age people because it is a nice course and doesnt need to be ruined. This attracts a lot of people because it is one of the best well known golf courses in the United Kingdom. Ashford Golf Club Ashford golf club is another local competitor. It is in Ashford too. They are competitor because they also offer the same services as most golf clubs do. These include green fees to the course. They target all ages but prefer old people because the prices are high for children. This attracts lots of people because it is a good choice for low handicap golfers. Located 2. 8 miles from the centre of Ashford Kent, in the south east corner of the United Kingdom, a few miles inland from the ports of Folkestone and Dover. We are also just 15 miles from the City of Canterbury and 18 miles from Maidstone, the county town of Kent. Directions from the M20 Motorway London Beach Golf Club is also a local competitor, you dont get many international competitors because only rarely people travel from across the world to visit a golf club. Unless its very well known. They are also a competitor because they sell the same products and do the same services. They also have a attached hotel so it is more popular. They sell buckets of balls on the driving range, putting greens, pitch and putt and green fees. They target all ages and have connection with Homewood school to attract youngsters. People at Homewood get green fees, and pitch and putt free but the driving range is i 1 off. Nike golf can be affected by many changes that Nikes competitors make. For example if they change their prices, Open a new store, start a big promotional campaign and more. If a competitor of Nike golf changed there prices Nike golf would be affected badly. In retaliation Nike golf could lower their prices too, which will stop the customers going to the competitors which would lose revenue if they did. If a competitor of Nike golf opened a new store this would affect Nike golf and they may lose revenue depending on the prices of the new store. To retaliate they could have a sale and lower their prices or even do some offers such as buy one get one free or 3 for the price of 2. This would work because the customers will buy products from Nike because the prices will be cheap and they are saving money. If a competitor started a new advertising campaign this would affect Nike golf because the customers will buy products from the competitors who will decrease Nikes revenue. To retaliate they could have a big promotion which is better than Nikes competitors and the products are cheaper, but they are still making a reasonable profit.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Death And Dying Changing Attitudes Through The Ages Sociology Essay

Death And Dying Changing Attitudes Through The Ages Sociology Essay The death process is permanent and predictable and it is known as the personal event that the person can never think. The history of deaths has been looked upon events of social importance and each and every culture has defined some rules and regulations to define death as an extraordinary passage and the way to deal with the outcomes. At the time of twentieth century, the terminology death along with its social definition has transformed and prepared extraordinary opportunities for the purpose of getting sociological inquiry. The decline in the mortality rate has been identified as most common feature within the social histories. Life expectancy rate the time of birth has increased from last 30 years in 1900 to 50 years.  Ã‚  It has been stated that almost two third part of longevity from ancient times to the present times has occurred in the short period from 1900 (Preston, 1976).  Ã‚   Death has been an inevitable event since the inception of mankind in this universe. There is always the worry among individuals towards the life and well being. The individuals are worried at one or the other instance for living their lives. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand what are the exact factors related to death and dying of humanity. An individual, if not dies, can result in disturbance of life cycle of this globe. This is not under the control of anyone to make amendments in this life cycle. The report here titled as, Death and dying: Changing attitudes through the ages; discusses about various factors that are affecting the lives of individuals. Report begins here with a clear focus laid on the aims of the report followed by research questions to understand the topic thoroughly. Various factors had been found of importance to be studied. There has always been a question in mind whether and how an individual behaves towards death and is it considered a positive aspect or not. How the individuals are are fear of death and what the right time of death is. These all aspects are explored in the report in below sections to have a thorough control over the research topic. 2 Aims and Research Question The research report here aims to understand the struggle that human being is facing since centuries. The change in philosophy associated with life is the main cause of change in attitude of human beings towards death. One can explore further this death on relating it with the time period in the life of human history. The western world has increasingly shifted towards change in conception for death due to rise in Christianity and the way it has affected lives (Aries, 1974). Therefore, the below are few stated research questions to explore further the concept of death and dying and the changing attitude:- Is death good or bad? How the attitude of individuals has changed towards death and dying? Is the man of today more worried against death? What is the right time of death? The discussion in this report would analyze various associated concepts to explore further the concept of death and dying in todays life. 3 Discussion Most of the deaths have occurred among the old aged ones but not among young generation people. The studies in United States reveal that people at the age of 85 years and above has accounted for almost one percent of entire population and they account for 17% of death (J. Brody, 1983). So the deaths have taken new meanings for the society and individual both. Death is not known as an adventitious part of life (Parson, 1963). Smaller number of lives has cut before completing education, work and social life (Preston, 1977). Fatalism provides a higher degree of control as well as predictability (Cf. Lofland, 1978). The delay in the death process has come up with the speed. The social institutions and norms have delayed it. It is not much surprising that death and its social meaning has gone off and the proper understanding of death has been reassessed by sociologists. From past two decades, a considerable literature as a quasi popular and scholarly type has been generated by number of p eople such as journalists, nurses, psychologists, philosophers, theologians, historians, ethicists, sociologists, social critics and thanatologists (cf. Fulton 1976, 1981; Pollak 1979-80).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The word dying is called as the ultimate shortage of time by Moore (1963) and it has taken a most important point that it has the power to threaten an individual self.  Ã‚  A famous person has given his  view on the sociological study of death that death always asks for an identity of an individual (Robert Fulton, 1976a).  Dying is known as the social process that focuses on the sociological issues that  are concerned with the process of dying and self. Researches have not clearly shown the actual conditions of dying. But one British study has talked about the dying among the patients who are living in this world and among the people who are known of their own attitude (Cartwright, Hockey Anderson, 1973).  Ã‚  The attitude of people towards death varies according to the ages and stages of life. Most of the people are living into later years and they have their own predicted on time deaths. A growing number of people are present at the position to consider the sense of thei r own deaths. Some sociologists have identified themselves engaged in the questions which are related to the death and its social meaning and its relation with the process of dying that how the topic of death is of great importance. What type of attitudes about death people have in their mind? What type of preparations they make for anticipating death (Riley, 1968)? The first survey in United States have found the attitude of people towards death and that survey was conducted in 1960s (Riley, 1970). That study has assessed the thought about deaths that most of the people at the all ages have non-threatening images of death in their mind. It has found that death is a blessing and it is not dreadful event for the person who dies but it is very sad for the survivors. The study also has revealed that death comes very quickly and few people have argued that death means the people have to suffer a lot. There was significant increase found in the degree to which the deaths process imposed upon the everyday lives of people. People were asked about an uncertainty of deaths or their lives. It has been found that death as a part of thoughts increased among the person at all ages and it increased in the later years of the lives of people. The researchers have found that people are unwilling meet with these realities. In 1970s, people agreed that each person die with the dignity and if the person has died, then the person has to tell it to doctors. Some studies have also taken place within the topic of anticipation of death. There was one question asked that do the people feel good to avoid the deaths and not try to make plans for anticipating deaths? Do they feel to make plans for death?  Ã‚   3.1 Self destruction The case of the sociological relationships of the person to the death which is known as suicide was taken. There were some sociological studies conducted on the topic dying and death (Cavan 1928; Halbwachs 1930; Henry Short 1954; Dublin 1963; Gibbs Martin 1964; Douglas 1967). Several studies have taken place on the social factors that are related with the rates of suicide. Several measures were taken such as industrialization which was identified by the gross national product and the status of integration. It has been founds that status integration was negatively correlated with the suicide rates.  Ã‚  Other study revealed about the suicide rates which were related with the family and their marital status and it was based on Durkheim theory.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.2 Self management of death time It has been stated by several studies that people who are concerned with the relationship of themselves to the society are self motivated for managing the time of their deaths. It has assumed that the determination to live the life without identifying any biological linkages. It must b involved within thistopic (Marshall, 1980).  Ã‚  The people who are separated from the society always commit suicide and the people who are attached with it, delay the death or try to observe the time of getting social significance (Kalish, 1970). It has been proposed that deaths can be expected at the time of social occasions such as the Jewish day of compensation (Yom Kippur; Phillips Feldman, 1973).  From the year 1904-1968, researcher had found the difference between the deaths in non election as well as election years. They found that there was significant difference in the mortality rates of US people before electing US president. Some researchers have shown the fact about the low mortality rates just before to ceremonial occasions and the researcher found strong relationships between the death and the birthdays. The theory was that the people at their birthdays receive attention from the people (Philips, 1972).  Ã‚   3.3 Social Stressors and the Self Several sociological studies have talked about the social outcome for the lives of people along with fundamental changes during the period of industrial relocations, retirement, and institutionalization and at the time of economic depression. The mortality rates depend on these variables. It has been predicted that retirement is known as a stressful event which lead the higher rates of death for retirees as compared to the people who works. Life long work is considered as the stressor and retirement variable acts as the moderator that increases longevity. It has been revealed by the studies that mortality rate among the early and normal retirees within the major industries are different. The mortality rate of early retiree was higher than the predicted rates. The mortality rate in case of normal retirees was no different between the normal and expected rates. Some data was taken out from the companies such as pension, medical records, personnel etc. 4 Findings 4.1 Death is good? If you are born to this world, you are probable completely to experience death at one time or the other because death is inevitable. The point is whether death is a good thing to experience or is it a bad one? Everyone living in this society faces death at one or the other instance. No one is born eternal. An individual dies and ends his or her life at certain age due to natural or accidental death (Lynch, 1997). There are thousands of ways in which a human being can die. This death adds to the fear in mind of humanity. Human beings fear of this uneven cause at one or the other time. Death is acceptable for some people, while others fear against death (Nagel, 1970). The pain and fear of death can be dangerous. At such an instance, it becomes important to result in an approach to ensure that a person lives for long; however, the human beings have no control over this mandatory part of life that results into end of life. A human being feels comfortable considering death is for all and there is no loss of it if anyone faces it. All the human beings have to face death one or the other day. The human beings shall live their days and take complete enjoyment of it. One shall not be worried for his death at the entire instance, but shall be aware of comfort and enjoyment throughout his life. Humanity has to take due interest of this and live his life. While on looking at other side, people consider life as most important asset for them. Life is of supreme importance and there is the life is priceless. Therefore, it brings into attention whether life is most important for one? Yes it is as per the point that life is everything for a human being and the loss of life means the greatest loss that can be in ones life. There is no positive or negative aspect associated with it though. Human beings give away everything for the sake of life. This brings into attention the importance of life. Shall we live our life without any tension or shall we keep on worrying because of no importance of life? It is true that all the human beings want to live more and more. But, can one live for eternity? None of the human beings is here to be here. The life cycle keeps on rotating and the human beings die. Thus, from the above discussion it can be noted that the point whether death is good is a complex point to be cleared. It is not easy to find the right way in which we can consider whether death is good for a person or if it is not. There comes the need to assist in the way to come up to know whether death is good or not (Nagel, 1970). If the age has gone for an individual to live, the death could be a favourable point for him. However, it is still tough to say that death can be good. On the other hand, in case someone dies due to an accident or any uncertain reason, it is an unfavourable act for him. 4.2 Death- A change in Perception Death has been a point of sorrow since long when the conceptual designs by Holbein demonstrated the paintings of dead Christ with a sorrowful act (Julia, 1989). The perception of individual towards the death changes with the passage of time. For a child, death is not defined. However, in the adulthood, it becomes a fear factor for most of the human beings. The human beings consider it as the real cause of danger at their stage when the love to live. Therefore, individuals perception is quite conservative at this stage. However, the old aged people are not usually worried of death due to the reason that they already lived their life. Nagel (1970) has argued that people do not fear for death because of non existence for long term because of this. One does not consider life as suspended for a short period of time because this is considered as a misfortune. It can be a pity for those who get out of the circulation of life. One is not conceived, but is born for once. The point always exists in mind for the fear of death in humanity. Being dead is not an event but a curse as per the humanity. The consideration is laid on living for the whole life without any risk. However, the risks are always related with the life. One cannot be at a state of complete risk free life. The time does not demonstrate whether the state of life would be at complete risk free state. Therefore, the need exists at such an instance to life for the society. As per the interviews conducted by Barnes (2008), responses were collected with regard to existence of God. These provided the details of self reflection along with clarifying important them es of writings. Barnes (2008) says that he does not trust for existence of God, but he misses God. 4.3 Man of today- Worried of death The man in todays life is more worried of death (Julian, 2008). On looking at the past records of Renaissance and mediaeval times, it can be noted that death was amongst the community events. The family members band together with each other to share the moments of sorrow at such an instance. This helps them be with each other at typical instances. This was considered as the reason for being together. However, the concept has changed into a religion in todays time. None of the character is rigid in itself right from the beginning to the end, as there are continuous changes in thought process (Troyer, 2007). Today, it is usual to share the moments of sorrow with each other at hospital to share the tough times with each other. This helps in confining the complex situation with each other to give some support in these times. However, the fear of death is one and the same on comparing time of past and that of present. The death is such an instance which gets out of the scope of an understanding of human being. This even can occur anytime and anywhere with anyone, no matter what the situation and setting is with the surrounding. An individual conceives death as a complex phenomenon. The death has been a point of worry right from the time it was recorded long- long ago when the humanity started. It is a simple concept in everyones mind that life is the cause of joys and death is the cause of sorrows. There is a paradigm shift in the concept associated with death. This was the concept quite personal in historic times, but has become individualistic at present instance. This raises the need for higher degree of need for maintaining and regulating the tough situations to assure that the mankind is out of danger. If an individual gets ready to face the time of death, he can do so. The human psychology is the main factor that can result in death or life of a human being (Michel, 2003). The perception of an individual depends on his life and profession with regard to death. Doctors and nurses who are operating surrounded by death of people all around one or the other day, consider this as the normal phenomenon at usual instance, while others take it as a tough one. The main factor is the relatedness of death with the person who is suffering from it. This characteristic affects the humanity in one or the other way. 4.4 Dreadful act- Is there right time for it There has always been a conception in mind, what is the right age for death? One considers life as an important part right from his birth to the time the human being leaves his life (Nagel, 1970). Therefore, the life of humanity is always a good opt for individuals. But, one looking at the real life, we can note a number of events when the individual wishes to leave his life due to some or the other reason. This acts against the humanity and the living being gives up against his life. This may be at early stages of life or might take place at later stages. When an individual feels uncomfortable of his body and physique, the chances are there for taking an interest of ending ones life. However, these chances even increases more when the human being is not comfortable mentally due to some or the other reason. This acts quite badly against the humanity and the life is at risk. The death is an imminent part of ones life as one cannot survive always. The most common components associated with life are death, vision, and premonitions (Crissman, 1994). The situation of promotions are not easy to be faced as it is the time when one knows that he is going to die within short span. This is the main factor that acts against the life and well being. The person gets worried due to this factor. This knowing of the situation can be due to some magical reason, or be supernatural, or through the natural sign or inner conviction (Crissman, 1994). The condition rises to take due care of such an instance; else the chances are there for risk against life and well being. Thereon, the humanity survives only due to the situational success (Bryant, 2003). However, historic people were during the Appalachian culture focused more depending on superstition. 5 Conclusion For the topic titled as, Death and dying: Changing attitudes through the age, the topic was noted to be highly complex in actual sense. It was found that the researchers are contributing well to the research topic since the last century. This demonstrates high degree of interest among the individuals towards this concept. The death is always under the consideration to postpone because of increasing awareness and interest among individuals to live their lives. There is always the moral dilemma related to the euthanasia among individuals. However, the case of fear is increasingly getting over the lives. Increasingly individuals get involved in wrongful act. This has raised the accidents of suicides to a higher degree. The death in todays time has shifted towards being more and more deadly. Individuals take more interest in being attracted towards enlarged life. However, the change in attitude of man is still not much different as compared to that of historic times. There is still the importance laid on lives and humanity. This raised the attention among individuals to live for longer duration. On the other hand, the complex lives in todays time has resulted in increased the complexity of humanity. This further adds to the pressure on the mind of individuals leading them to depression and thus resulting in wrongful acts. There is no time for death until the end of hope of an individual. This point out increasing interest among individuals to live and enjoy their lives with not much interest laid on the other factors. The fear against death is therefore a phenomenon which does not seem to decrease even after decades. Individuals would be keeping living their lives for more and more years, in spite of this being an uncontrollable variable for individuals.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

SUPERSTITIOUS :: essays research papers

SUPERSTITIOUS Human beings are superstitious especially among Chinese. If anyone who claims that he or she is not superstitious is either a liar or a fool. A lot of us believe in certain things that do not have logical explanations. This is especially true in this multi-racial country of ours. Each community has its own beliefs. It would be impossible to discuss all of the beliefs of Chinese; therefore I will just touch on some of them. I still remember a few years ago, some of my friends and I went to a holiday in Bukit Bendera. One of friend decided to take some snapshots. So we all were dressed up and ready to be ‘shot’. We had our individual photographs taken first, and then we decided to have group photographs. But one of my friends gave us a warning that did not made up any group of three. He said that misfortune will befall one of the three if they have their photographs taken together! After listened that everyone avoided being in a group of three. Although I STUDY SKILLS IN ENGLISH SSE 131 never heard of such a thing before but after hearing it, I did not want to take the risk. Actually it spoiled the fun a bit. I felt it was difficult to believe, even photographs can be superstitious. Honestly speaking, I do not know how much truth there is in this illogical belief but I do not dare to test it. After reading this, will you still dare to have your photograph to be taken with two other people? The number three is also taboo among cigarette smokers. On occasions I have seen a group of people lighting up their cigarettes only to a maximum of two persons per lighted match. Actually the light is slowly extinguished after two persons and then person number three will use a new match. This I have to define as the belief that maybe some tragedy will strike the third person who receives a lighted match. Well, here is another belief not to be challenged. When you are having a baby, there are some beliefs especially for the Chinese pregnant ladies such as: Don't use glue when you are pregnant because it will cause a difficult birth. Another thing is if you strike an animal during pregnancy, the newborn child will look like that animal and behave like one.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Civil Rights Timeline: Jan. 15, 1929 - Dec. 21, 1956 :: American Civil Rights

Civil Rights Timeline: Jan. 15, 1929 - Dec. 21, 1956 Jan. 15, 1929 - Dr. King is born - Born on Jan. 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Ga., he was the second of three children of the Rev. Michael (later Martin) and Alberta Williams King. Sept. 1, 1954 - Dr. King becomes pastor - In 1954, King accepted his first pastorate--the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. He and his wife, Coretta Scott King, whom he had met and married (June 1953) while at Boston University. Dec. 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks defies city segregation - Often called "the mother of the civil rights movement," Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, b. Tuskegee, Ala., Feb. 4, 1913, sparked the 381-day Montgomery bus boycott that led to a 1956 Supreme Court order outlawing discriminatory practices on Montgomery buses. In December 1955, returning home from her assistant tailor job in Montgomery, Parks refused a bus driver's order to surrender her seat to a white man. She was jailed and fined $14. Dec. 5, 1955 - Montgomery bus boycott- Although precipitated by the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56 was actually a collective response to decades of intimidation, harassment and discrimination of Alabama's African American population. By 1955, judicial decisions were still the principal means of struggle for civil rights, even though picketing, marches and boycotts sometimes punctuated the litigation. The boycott, which lasted for more than a year, was almost 100 percent effective. Dec. 21, 1956 - Bus segregation declared illegal - The boycott's succeeded in desegregating public facilities in the South and also in obtaining civil rights legislation from Congress. Civil Rights Timeline Sept. 24, 1957 - May 2, 1963 Sept. 24, 1957 - School integration - In September 1957 the state received national attention when Gov. Orval E. Faubus (in office 1955-67) tried to prevent the integration of Little Rock Central High School. President Dwight D. Eisenhower quickly intervened, in part by sending federal troops to Little Rock, and several black students were enrolled at Central High School. Aug. 19, 1958 - Student sit-ins - In spite of the events in Little Rock or Montgomery, or Supreme Court decisions, segregation still pervaded American society by 1960. While protests and boycotts achieved moderate successes in desegregating aspects of education and transportation, other facilities such as restaurants, theaters, libraries, amusement parks and churches either barred or limited access to African Americans, or maintained separate, invariably inferior, facilities for black patrons.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing Marlow of Heart of Darkness and Willard of Apocalypse Now Ess

Comparing Marlow of Heart of Darkness and Willard of Apocalypse Now      Whenever books are adapted for film, changes inevitably have to be made. The medium of film offers several advantages and disadvantages over the book: it is not as adept at exploring the inner workings of people - it cannot explore their minds so easily; however, the added visual and audio capabilities of film open whole new areas of the imagination which, in the hands of a competent writer-director, can more than compensate. Heart of Darkness relies heavily on lengthy philosophical and expository passages, as well as some very unusual and complex imagery; â€Å"not the easiest material to rewrite as a screenplay† (Canby, 18). However, rewrite it Francis Ford Coppola did, altering the time and place of the novel from 19th century Congo to 20th century Vietnam. Coppola made an original film, with concepts and ideas taken from Heart of Darkness, rather than making a straight film version of the book. Consequently, there are many similarities and differences between the film and the book. The character of Marlow is renamed Willard in Apocalypse Now. This is noteworthy; the character of Kurtz has the same name in both the text and the film, so why not Marlow? â€Å"This is probably because the character of Kurtz in the film is almost identical to that in the book, whereas Willard is very different from Marlow† (Benner, 34). Kurtz is the person who has disconnected himself from society; he is not tied to any particular era, so his character works just as effectively in the 20th century as in the 19th. However, Marlow is the ordinary person in Heart of Darkness - the one ordinary man in the entire book, more-or-less; he is what ties the book into the society of ... ...tif/Symbol/Metaphor (accessed 23 Jan. 2000). Benner, Ralph Heart of Darkness: A film review by Ralph Benner created 1996 (accessed 26 Jan. 2000). Canby, Vincent. "Apocalypse Now." The New York Times Film Reviews. New York: The New York Times & Arno Press, 1981. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness & The Secret Sharer. New York: Penguin Books, 1978. Fortmeyer, Russell. 'Apocalypse' cast filled with rage created 1994 (accessed 23 Jan. 2000). Heart of Darkness: Theme/Symbol/Allusion/Foreshadow (accessed 23 Jan. 2000). Urch, Martin. Apocalypse Now: A film review by Martin Urch created 1994 (accessed 23 Jan. 2000).

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Explaining of The Child Protection in The Wider Concept of Safeguarding Children and Young People

Explain child protection in the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people. Safeguarding of children is known as an umbrella term which means it involves everything to ensure the health and safety of the children. Safeguarding of a child is priority, whether it to be at home, nursery, youth clubs, in a social setting or in someone else’s care. Also whether it is an adult they know or don’t know or even another child, knowing the welfare of each individual child is paramount.In doing this there are many policies and procedures to follow regarding a child’s health and safety, in which companies have to enforce these policies and procedures in a child based setting. When a child based setting is recruiting new members of staff there are many checks that they need to do, the main check is their DBS checks commonly known as their CRB to ensure they have no criminal convictions, ever been on a sex offenders list or are a general risk to children.Communicat ion with a child’s parent is so important when it comes to a child’s welfare knowing how the child’s home life is and any concerns the parents may have about their child. Having a good working relationship with the parents and getting to know them is key, they are entrusting us with the welfare of their children. It is a difficult transition for parent sending their children to nursery for the first time knowing that their child is going to be safe and their well-being is going to be well cared for is reassuring to them.Making sure a child’s welfare is safe in all aspects of life is a vital part of their development in their learning capability, in their confidence and in the long term impact into adult hood. It is important that all staff know the correct policies and procedures if they have cause for concern, finding ways to do this is updating safeguarding polices regularly and retraining staff often to ensure this.Also setting up a CAF (common assessm ent framework) and making contact with multi agencies for a child who they have cause for concern for and putting  support in place for them is a good way to ensure a child in need is getting the best possible support, and them knowing that someone is there to listen and support them is reassuring to the child. Making staff stand out as staff with the correct uniform and ensuring ID is in full view for the parents and other staff to see clearly for identification.Making sure that the staffs don’t put themselves in any sort of situation to possible complains that can arise i. e.  no mobile phones or if any conflict with a child make sure it is handled correctly following the correct policies and procedure guidelines of your work setting. Also making sure schools and nurseries know who exactly are coming in and out of the building with a signing in book. There are all types of abuse, physical abuse, mental abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and verbal abuse, following the safegua rding policies and procedures will help ensure a child’s health and safety.Making sure these policies and procedures are followed correctly will give the child the best outcome in life. There are many ways to protect a child, at home, in a school or social setting. Unfortunately in today’s society there is a dip in the system when it comes to the protection of children, so many children are being put a risk. People need to be more vigilant to stop children getting abused in any sort of way. Every child matters they are our future abuse needs to stop, people need to become more aware to help prevent these things from happening.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Employment and Total Rewards

Introduction The aim of this paper seeks to examine the concept of total rewards in the process of increasing prominence in organisations. Total Rewards is best described as a business strategy that â€Å"includes financial and non-financial complementary elements designed to recruit, develop, retain and motivate employees†(OSP 2003). â€Å"Employees working for a total rewards employer tend to be more motivated, productive, and happy†. (eHow 1999) As a result is â€Å"the business thrives†(eHow 1999) and prominence. In this paper, I will following this concept to explore more detailed of effectiveness total reward in the organisation prominence.The concept of rewards has developed over the time to represent more than just to pay cheque an employee at the end of the month. The concept of total rewards was emerged in the 1990s as a new way of thinking about the deployment of compensation and benefits, combined with other tangible and intangibles ways that company seek to attract best people. (Richard val del Walt 2010) As defined by Manus and Graham (2003), total reward ‘includes all types of rewards-indirect as well as direct, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic’. Michael Armstrong 2006) The direct reward is what an employee receives from the employer in bank account such as base wage, bonuses, commission. Indirect rewards, often called â€Å"benefits† refers to that part of the total reward package in addition to direct pay, such as health & life insurance cover, retirement & pension plans, health care, company car and mobile phone (Koala Consulting and Training 2008). â€Å"There are extrinsic rewards, which cover the basic needs of income to survive (to pay bills), a feeling of stability and consistency (the job is secure), and recognition (my workplace values my skills).On the other hand, there are intrinsic rewards, the most important of which is probably job satisfaction, a feeling of completing challenges competen tly, enjoyment, and even perhaps the social interactions which arise from the workplace†. (Koala Consulting and Training 2008) The ability link and balance all aspects of rewards together helps organisations achieve the motivation, commitment, engagement and development of employees. The consequence is profitability, efficiency and prominence in organisation.The most companies who use the total reward strategy simply mean to provide â€Å"benefits and a positive place to work† (Patricia K. Zingheim and Jay R. Schuster 2002), but â€Å"this makes a company attractive to the workforce in general but perhaps not to those who will make enterprise prosper. The companies need to fashion workplace to be attractive to people who are wanted to adding value to the business†. (Patricia K. Zingheim and Jay R. Schuster 2002) To increase prominence and efficiency in organisations is responsible equally as an employer, as employees.The employer responsible to creates an atmosph ere in which the best people will want to work in company. â€Å"It is true that the best people will work more than pay†. (Patricia K. Zingheim and Jay R. Schuster 2002). The total rewards scheme concept is simply about the creating an atmosphere by financial and non-financial benefits given to employees in trade for their service, time, abilities and their efforts to support the company. The â€Å"top talent† (Patricia K. Zingheim and Jay R. Schuster 2000) wants to work for the company provide better workforce deal that involves the four total rewards components.The compiling future is important for the employees, because they want to â€Å"be able to draw self-esteem and satisfaction from working in the organisation. Employees want to feel that the organisation has optimistic and positive vision, direction and growth of the future and a set of values that they can support†. (Employement studies [n d]) The company that focuses on individual growth gives opport unity an employee for training, coaching and personal development. (Patricia K. Zingheim and Jay R.Schuster 2002) Also, the employee wants to work in organisation where workplace is positive. This means best leadership, team working and open communication. Roles and working environment â€Å"should be designed around employees† (Employement studies [n d]), with a focus on their future development. â€Å"Employees need to feel that what they do is important and to understand how their role relates to the organisation’s goals†. (Employement studies [n d]). The last component is total pay. Total pay involves basic pay, performance-related pay, benefits, and feedback or recognition.All the elements that involve total pay are good way â€Å"to address individual need and preference†. (Employement studies [n d]) For example, â€Å"performance-related pay to emphasise results; benefits to provide protection from life and health hazards, in addition to holidays, recognition and feedback†. (Employement studies [n d]) Some companies can balance the four components or choose the only one, for example some companies may have very strong total pay, but the poor work environment. Other companies may have weaker total pay but develop people, provide a positive workplace.Also, there are five elements of total rewards model, WorldatWork (2011) presented the each of which helps to make the strategy to attract, motivate and retain employees. These elements are: compensation, benefits, work-life balance, performance & recognition and development and career opportunities. The compensation includes four basic components, such as â€Å"fixed pay – Also known as â€Å"basic pay†, fixed pay is nondiscretionary compensation that does not vary according to performance or results achieved. It usually is determined by the organization’s pay philosophy and structure.Variable pay – Also known as â€Å"pay at risk†, varia ble pay changes directly with the level of performance or results achieved. It is a one-time payment and must be re-established and re-earned each performance period. Short-term incentive pay – a form of variable pay, short-term incentive pay is designed to focus and reward performance over a period of one year or less. Long-term incentive pay – a form of variable pay, long-term incentive pay is designed to focus and reward performance over a period longer than one year. Typical forms include stock options, restricted stock, performance shares, performance units and cash†. SARA 2010) Hroot ( 2007) said while one of the most traditional elements of total rewards, it remains a essential for business success. Benefits area constantly challenged and expanding during the last time from just , holiday, health-care benefits to benefits programs which protect employees and their families from financial risks and can categorized such as retirement and medical and dental i nsurance, as well as non-traditional programs, such as identity theft and pet insurance. Life-balance area focused to help employees do their job effectively, such as flexible scheduling, telecommuting, child-care programs, etc.In talent management, performance involves the association of organizational and individual goals toward business success. Recognition is a way for employers to pay special attention to workers for their accomplishments, behaviours and successes. Recognition is necessary to support the value of performance improvement and promote positive communication and feedback. â€Å"Development a set of learning experiences designed to improve employees’ practical skills and competencies. Development engages employees to perform better and engages leaders to advance their organization’s people strategies. Career pportunities area focuses on the planning for employees to go forward their career goals, and a more responsible position in an organization. The development and career opportunities involve the learning opportunities and coaching, such as new technology training, attendance at outside seminars, conferences, virtual education, leadership training and formal or informal mentoring programs†. (SARA 2010) Full understanding of total rewards concept, key components and elements give opportunity to implement the total reward strategy to attract best people, talent, keep them and have them perform well.After all, effective reward systems help an organization not just retain key employees, but also be more competitive and reduce turnover. The ability to understand the purpose of total rewards helps recognise and identify the main powerful types of total rewards to be more competitive and avoid the staff turnover. Staff turnover is the most serious problem for the company. The reasons to leave the organisations are: â€Å"I'm not sure there's a future here for me. â€Å", â€Å"I just don't feel like this is the right place for me. â€Å", â€Å"I'm not sure I want to be doing this for the rest of my life. † and â€Å"I think I can make more money elsewhere. (The Vision Link Advisory Group [n d]) With an understanding of the reasons people leave an organization, the organisations can easily to improve these areas of an organization's by using the total rewards strategy to creating and sustaining a culture that is not copy able – which is essential to maintaining a competitive advantage in the market place(The Vision Link Advisory Group [n d]), but if the company will ignore the reasons why people leave the company, there are affecting them in many ways, such as high staff turnover, conflict, stress, low productivity, bad company image and lose of the business.The main issue to implement the total rewards strategy is turnover. There are many consequences such as lost of best employees, time and cost of selection and recruitment process, poor performance, conflict, stress and poor company image. The turnover is split on two categories voluntary turnover where employee chooses to leave. The key reasons include better career opportunities ; development, increased compensation and better work environment.Involuntary turnover is when employer is asked to leave for reasons including poor performance or development, an inappropriate behaviour and attendance of employee. To replaces an employee the HR Management department, which is responsible for the recruitment and selection process should prepared all relevant procedures to recruit new worker. Recruitment and selection process are very expensive and also considers the costs and consequences of employee turnover.There are financial, community and workforce impact. â€Å"Every time an employee leaves and has to be replaced, an operation incurs a number of direct financial costs, including administration costs associated with processing resignations and dismissal, time taken up in conducting exit interviews, productivity losses associated with impending departure. Lost productivity and additional costs such as overtime or contractor payments to cover for vacancies created by this departures.Recruitment costs such as advertising, employment of job search agencies, time and resources spent in processing applications, staff time involved in selection interviews. Also the training and start-up costs, because the time of trainers and staff and of new employees taken up in inductions and on the job training, loss of productivity until the new employee reaches full production potential†. (David Brereton, Mining David, Ruth Beach. 2003) â€Å"In fact, last year it was estimated that filling each staff vacancy in a business costs the employer between ? 4333 and ? 7750. †(J. A.J Aaronson 2010) In addition to financial costs, high turnover is very negatively affects operational efficiency, such as a close teamwork, because instability in the workforce, consequences can include increased stress an d tension amongst those remaining employees who have to fill the gaps left by departing employees, declining employee morale, and decreased productivity. (Pinkovitz, Moskal et al 1997)The companies which have staff turnover can’t to invest in training and career development for staff, which is so important for the employees, because have big looses in recruitment and selection process.The ability to implement and develop the total rewards system will give many benefits to achieve organisational goals, make company efficient and prominent. The benefits of total rewards approach are: â€Å"greater impact- the combined effect of the different types of rewards will make a deeper and long lasting impact on the motivation and commitment of people†. (Michael Armstrong 2006) The total rewards and â€Å"Maslow’s need hierarchy theory (1954) is very considered.Maslow proposed the motivation is a function of five basic needs-physiological, safeties, love, esteem and self- actualization and explained that a person’s physiological needs must be firstly met followed by safety needs, and so on up the need hierarchy. When designing total reward strategy, employees’ multifarious needs must be well considered, Maslow’s points will help the organization reach its expectation†. (Zhou Jiang 2009)† Employee will give their maximum when they motivated and have a feeling or trust that their efforts will be rewarded by the management.There are many factors that affect employee performance like working conditions, worker and employer relationship, training and development opportunities, job security, and companies overall policies and procedures for rewarding employees. Among all those factors which affect employee performance, motivation that comes with rewards is of utmost importance†. (Nadia Sajjad Hafiza, Syed Sohaib Shah, Humera Jamsheed, Khalid Zaman 2011) A satisfied and motivated employee and work force by tangible and intangible rewards can definitely help sustain productivity.Job satisfaction plays an important role in employee commitment and in reducing employee absenteeism and boredom at work. Smith (1992) believed that job satisfaction could lead to cost reduction by reducing absences, errors and turnovers which leads to greater productivity and economic and industrial growth which is a major drive of most organisations. The result of total reward strategy is happy motivated employees and their â€Å"appreciation, meeting the new challenges, positive and caring attitude from employer, and job rotation after attaining the goal†. Nadia Sajjad Hafiza, Syed Sohaib Shah, Humera Jamsheed, Khalid Zaman 2011) The second benefit of total rewards is increased flexibility in the total rewards approach â€Å"allows awards to be mixed to fit the various needs of the employee. Flexibility has become an important factor in work-life balance. Organizations are recognizing the constraints many worker s are facing and providing them with alternatives to ensure the motivational and emotional needs of the employees are met.Some flexibility rewards that have been implemented in many organizations are instilling various scheduling options and providing telecommuting options. More companies are instituting new work schedules which include longer days but shorter weeks, i. e. 4 days @ 10 hours as well as allowing employees to work from home. With technology becoming more advanced, employers can meet with employees via the web and documents can be faxed or emailed. Increased flexibility is both beneficial to the employer and the employee†. (Cyberessays, Divaqueen. 011) The other benefit of total rewards Michael Armstrong (2006) said is talent management- relational rewards (learning, development and work environment) help to deliver a positive psychological contract and this can serve as a differentiator in the recruitment market that is much more difficult to replicate than indiv idual pay practices. The organisation can become an ‘employer of choice’ and ‘a great place to work’; the result is attracting and retaining the talent people it needs. There are many advantages from managing talent, such as makes company more competitive in competition.The company that try developing and producing super-talented people is â€Å"always best to compare products or services to competitors. This important process of the company increased sales effectively and efficiently. With the position more competitive than the competition, a company can automatically effective market penetration and gain greater market share. Gain market share means more sales of the company increases significantly†. (Business 2011) The ability correctly implements the total rewards strategy give organisations opportunity to become efficient and competitive over competitors.Mary Mosqueda, (2008) said developing the correct mix for the total rewards strategy is the key to employing and keeping the best talent. The first step is identifying the culture, employee climate, and employee demographics. This can be determined through an employee appraisal system, focus groups or key employee interviews. After identifying what drives employee motivation, commitment, and loyalty for organization, also the importance to determine how much organisation are willing to spend. The second step involves creating a road map or a total rewards philosophy/strategy.The importance of discussion on relevant question related to the total rewards strategy. The question such as: â€Å"What transactional and relational rewards company already offer? †, â€Å"What compensation, benefits and work/life programs should the company offer to remain competitive in industry? †, â€Å"What is overall commitment to company’s financials and employees? †, â€Å"Who is the company’s competitors and peers rewards programs? † These entire que stions give opportunity to think of development general total rewards strategy.Mary Mosqueda, (2008) said the third step is development of policies and procedures regarding the use of new benefits, learning environment, development and compensation systems. These policies establish the flow of the process and secure the integrity of both the company and employee. Management can easily include these polices into an employee manual or handbook. It is very important that senior management is on board with any changes or new policies with regard to employee total rewards programs, then, the fourth step in this process involves including top management from the beginning.Educating management on how to successfully implement these strategies with their employees is critical. Managers and employees need to understand the process and learn how total rewards can help them in achieving objectives and further company’s financial goals. This can be achieved through different methods of c ommunication. Communication is next step of the implementation, which is vital to the successful result of total rewards strategy. If this is not communicated properly, it is all for naught.The communication of rewards strategy can be by emails, meetings, newsletters, representatives; etc, â€Å"Communication should support development strategy and achieve a win-win situation for both the organisation and employees. As employees contribute to the organisation in achieving its goals, those same employees need to share in its success. To encourage this win-win situation, senior management needs to ensure that employees have a clear direction and that they feel valued by receiving appropriate rewards. † (Michael Silverman, Peter Reilly. N d]) Also, the total rewards strategy has a poor result, if development and implementation process is incorrect, because† applying too much motivation or offering too many rewards can also have a negative effect. Employees can become over- confident. They may feel that they are the bosses' favourite workers, even if they start to slack off on their work and responsibilities or test the limits of their working relationship with their supervisors†. (Amelia Jenkins, Demand Media [n d]) Anyway using total rewards strategy the organisation motivate, build a good atmosphere and relationship with employee that fosters a sense of trust.In a good relationship, employees may feel respected and comfortable in their working environment. Providing rewards, both tangible and intangible make employees happier. Happier employees often perform better at work and proud of their company. Conclusion This essay examined the concept of total rewards and the reasons for its increasing prominence in organisation. The components, elements and benefits of total rewards make the clear understanding how it is important for the organisation on the whole.The total rewards have a positive influence on the employee base and the company, becaus e the ability to give the right rewards to the right employee makes the win-win result. Employees who know they will be rewarded for their efforts, talent and development will continue to perform well and maintains employee satisfaction. When, employees talk about organisation with good reward system and their development, opportunities, good payments and environment, its make organisation more attractive. Over the time a reputation and company image go up.In addition, an organization's reputation makes an impression on current and future clients, which can significantly improve the company's worth and profitability. There are more consequences of reward strategy such as happy and satisfy employees, good atmosphere, reduce the staff turnover, good reputation and profitability. It is make the organisation very prominent. References Michael Armstrong (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited. p629 Michael Armstrong (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited. 632. 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