Thursday, December 26, 2019

Company Code of Ethics Essay - 827 Words

Company Code of Ethics The Company code of ethics will cover all employees within our organization. The Code of ethics is essential for corporations today to remain in business and abide by their federal and state government regulations. Ethical training programs will exist ever corporation and are given to each employee usually the first day of employment and renewed on the annual basics. An ethical conflict occurs when people will encounter situations that they cannot easily control or resolved. In such situations, people tend to base their decisions on their own morality of right or wrong and act accordingly in their daily lives. Morally viewpoint and principles or rules the individuals use to decide what is right and wrong often†¦show more content†¦We will have respect for each others and for all our stakeholders. Trust, honesty and integrity are our key values). (Yell Group, December, 2007) Purpose of the code: The purpose of an organizations or business code of ethics will be to establish procedures and standards for employees within our corporation’s value and cultures. Employees will comply with all governmental laws and regulations. Promote honesty and ethical conduct for our corporation. Promote an internal reporting system for all ethical violations within our corporation. The Corporation will have the accountability for any adherence within our codes of ethics standards and procedures. Core values The corporation core values include general are leadership, integrity (Office Max) core values are (Integrity and accountability, We operate in a way that is ethical and fair We are not just following rules and legal guidelines, but making decisions and taking action based on solid values). (Office Max, Revised April, 2008) Different professions and originations will have their possess code of ethics. Engineers shall show leadership and have an objective and truthfulness in a professional miner of their reports, and statements, and or testimony. They shall include all information such as reports, statements, or testimony, which should bear the date showing when it was curetted. (Ethics for Engineers, Publication #1102) TrainingShow MoreRelatedThe Code of Ethics of a Company2068 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿Code  of Ethics A code of ethics represents a value statement of a company, its directors and its employees. It is the expected behavior tone that needs to be practiced in the company. It is considered to be a subsection of the ongoing mentoring program for ethical decision making. This program helps in preventing misconduct at workplace. For effective execution, this program requires continuous compliance monitoring along with constant reports to the top management. Code of ethics is a writtenRead MoreThe Principles Of The Code Of Ethics Of A Company1143 Words   |  5 Pagesable to select and justify their top three business principles after teaching them the seven principles of the code of ethics of a company. Students will be able to individually explain the direct relationship that exists between a code of ethics and how it plays out with social responsibility. Students will understand and therefore recall specific principles they would like their company to use when they become entrepreneurs. Expectations: The audience will participate in discussions with enthusiasmRead MoreCode of Ethics for a Fictional Company1466 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Code of Ethics for Fictional Company I. Objective The objective of this study is to create a code of ethics for a fictional company. 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One reason for Wal-Mart’s is the value and hard work they put into upholding their code of ethics. Wal-Mart has three basic beliefs – respect for the individual, service to their customers, and striving for excellence. Of theRead MoreCode of Ethics Conduct Coca-Cola Company3157 Words   |  13 PagesEnvironment Code of Ethics Conduct Coca-Cola Company Richard Bonds Dr. J. A. Anderson, Sr. Date May, 31 2014 Abstract Coca-Cola Company or Coke s the largest distributor of soft drinks in the world. Businesses such as Coke and other corporations set a strict code of ethics laws to live by and operate upon. This paper will illustrate the code of ethics of Coke the industry leaders and two of its partners/competitors PepsiCo and Dr. Pepper/Snapple Co. and the similarities of their ethics codeRead MoreEssay on Est1 Code of Ethics Company G1303 Words   |  6 PagesGiven Company| Ethics Program| | Patti BowenWestern Governors University| | Given Company Ethics Program A. INTRODUCTION Our Code of Ethics Program is designed to uphold the interests of every stakeholder of Given Company. Our mission is to uphold a high level of integrity by maintaining high company standards, values and principles to ensure the company meets its mission of being a good corporate citizen who is socially responsible. Our program provides effective guidance for dailyRead MoreThe Code Of Ethics : The Star Financial And Tax Solutions Company Essay1495 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction A Code of Ethics is placed to act as a guideline to specific values, ethics, organization objectives, and the responsibilities of the specific organization. The code of ethics acts a guideline and template for the behavior for both internal employees and also towards employees externally. Being the cornerstone of operations, The Star Financial and Tax Solutions Company operations are guided by the following Code of Ethics: 1. Legal Compliance-the employees should adhere to the rule ofRead MoreEstablishing a Code of Ethics: Planning Implementation and Evaluation Strategies within a Company1472 Words   |  6 Pagesestablishing a code of ethics, its planning, and implementation and evaluation strategies within a company. After brainstorming about the ethical values for the company it will be easier for the company to support non-profit organization as much as possible. A-Develop an appropriate standards and procedures section, such as a code of ethics. This Code of ethics is supported by the following essential assumptions: For the purpose of achieving the objectives of the companies, ethics are very important

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Gullivers Travels A Severe Indictment on Human Nature...

An English Literature classic, Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726) follows the sub-genre of traveler tales and presents a severe indictment on human nature through satire. Swift uses satire in Part IV – â€Å"A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms† to represent the human and animal entities. In the fourth voyage, Swift is indicting the human species but a deeper reading of the text reveals that perhaps Swift is also satirizing the Houyhnhnms and the protagonist traveler, Gulliver. Swift is ridiculing Gulliver and his ideals that make him perceive the Houyhnhnms as a rational and intelligent species as compared to the Yahoos, the humans. The following discussion examines the representation of the Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos as†¦show more content†¦Gulliver comes across as a gullible character that remains blinded to the downside of Houyhnhnms rational philosophy and solely praises the intelligence and humor of the equine species. The part four needs to be understood not only as an interaction between the Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos, implying the nature of relationships between horses and humans, albeit in a humoristic and satirical manner but the voyage needs to be analyzed as a confrontation between Gulliver and Swift. For a supposedly master race, the Houyhnhnms come across as an arrogant and unenlightened population. They â€Å"have not the least idea of books or literature† and neither do they have any knowledge of countries existing beyond them. They do not favour acquiring knowledge that does not have any concrete use and neither do they understand the capability of humans to cause mischief because they lack claws like the Yahoos and sharp teeth to bite each other. Here, Swift tends to over emphasize the rational ability of the Houyhnhnms; they lack emotions and imagination and for an imaginative writer like Swift who is also the creator of the satirical â€Å"A Modest Proposal†, it is unlikely that Swift would have perceived a society devoid of imagination and emotion to be the ideal or utopian society. Moreover, the representation and popular critical understanding of Yahoos as resembling the human species is baseless and absurd. If the Yahoos were supposed to be equated with humans, Gulliver

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Canterbury Tales Chaunticleer; Behind The Rooster Essay Example For Students

Canterbury Tales: Chaunticleer; Behind The Rooster Essay Canterbury Tales: Chaunticleer; Behind the RoosterIn the book Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer, gives us a stunning taleabout a rooster named Chaunticleer. Chaunticleer, who is the King of his domainin his farmland kingdom. Like a King, he quotes passages from intellectuals,dreams vivid dreams, has a libido that runs like a bat out of hell, and isdescribed as a very elegant looking Rooster. He has every characteristic of aperson belonging to the upper class. Chaucers hidden meanings and ideas make usthink that the story is about roosters and farm animals, but in reality he ismaking the Aristocracy of his time period the subject of his mockery by makingthe reader realize how clueless the Aristocracy can be to the way things are inthe real World. Chaucer describes Chaunticleer in many different ways. One of them ishis language. Chaunticleers language is that of a scholar. He quotes manydifferent scriptures in a conversation with Pertelote, such as, Saint Kenelm,Daniel and Joseph (from the bible), and Croesus. From each author he tells astory about an individual who had a vision in a dream and the dream came true. He may have been making all the stories up in order to win the argument withPertelote, but, this seems unlikely because he does not take heed to his ownadvice and stay away from the fox that encounters him later. He is educatedenough to know these supposed quotations but not intelligent enough tounderstand the real meaning of them. It is if he simply brings because they helphim win the argument with his spouse and not because he actually believes whatthey say. Chaucer is using the idea that the Aristocracy has schoolingthroughout their childhood, but it is only done to have seemingly important butempty conversations. His physical appearance is also described with such beautiful passionthat it makes us think Chaunticleer is heaven on earth. His comb was redderthan fine coral, and crenellated like a castle wall; his bill was black andshone like jet; his legs and toes were like azure; his nails whiter than lily;and his color like the burnished gold. Chaucer describes Chaunticleer as thequintessential Cock, so perfect that his description is no longer believablewhen we realize he is describing a Rooster. Chaucer is setting up Chaunticleerto be as regal and grandiose as a King. Even though he looks like a milliondollars he is still very shallow inside. He lies to his spouse just to keep herhappy and his every thought is of fornication. Like the Aristocracy he takesmany pleasures of the flesh with no real commitment to his duty as a rooster. Chaunticleers character appears to be that of a shallow used carsalesman. He lies to his spouse about his opinion of women just so he can rideher later in the morning. Mulier est hominis confusio; Madame, the meaning ofthis Latin is, Woman is mans joy and all his bliss.' The real meaning is Woman is mans ruin. He tells her a lie to ensure he gets what he wants fromher later. He seems like the type of person who would say anything to get whatthey want no matter the truth or whom it hurts. He also falls victim to his ownhubris, something that is not uncommon to most rich arrogant people. Chaucers creation of Chaunticleer is done solely to imitate and mockthe upper class. Chaunticleer is educated, like people in the upper class; looksgood, as people with money can afford to do; and revolves around the pleasuresof the flesh like a pre-pubescent child. Had he not been riding Pertelote allmorning he might have seen the fox coming and been able to avoid becomingcaptured. His attitude was that of the upper class, that he is too good to worryabout lifes little trivial matters and that he loves to have pleasure. The foxis able to dupe him simply by flattering his voice. the reason I came wasonly to hear how you sing.. He is so consumed with living in his own grandiosetwisted reality, where nothing bad happens, that he does not realize that a foxis about to gobble him up! He does have an epiphany at the end, however, Nomore through your flattery get me to close my eyes and sing. For he whoknowingly blinks when he should see, God let him never thrive. Chaucer uses thecharacte r Chaunticleer to poke fun at the Aristocracy and all their tendenciestowards living life in the name of consummate pleasure seekers, and not in thename of reality driven people.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Prejudice and Discrimination Essay Sample free essay sample

Prejudice as defined by John E Farley is â€Å"that bias refers to a positive or a negative attitude or belief directed toward certain people based on their rank in a peculiar group. The root word of bias is pre-judge. It is a set of attitudes which causes. supports. or justifies discrimination† . ( Farley. 2000. p18 ) . There are three constituents of bias which describe the different elements associated with it. Affectual one’s inner experiencing which can be the consequence of incitation and are in conformity with people’s likes and disfavors. Behavioural the manner people action their belief systems doing them to act in a certain manner. Cognitive the preconceived beliefs or outlooks and involves pigeonholing which normally are negative. Discrimination can be defined as the devising of. a for or against action towards a individual based on group. category. or a class to which they belong. instead than judge a individual on their virtue. We will write a custom essay sample on Prejudice and Discrimination Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This is the external representation of internal bias. Baron and Byrne ( 1997 ) defined favoritism as â€Å"negative behaviors directed towards people who are the object of prejudice† . Allport ( 1954 ) suggests that there are five phases of favoritism. Anti-locution would include incitement by address for illustration racially motivated or sectarian gags. Avoidance where neglecting to include people without sing their capablenesss means people in minority groups are continuously avoided by the persons of the bulk group. Although no injury is meant. injury is still done through isolation. Discrimination comprises of a denying chances to a minority group or individual with the purpose of intentionally forestalling them from having services or ends such as instruction and employment. Physical Attack involves the deliberate vandalising of or violent onslaughts on persons and their belongings. Extinction is cultural cleansing in an effort to eliminate an full race of peoples. ( Allport. 1954. p71 ) It is hard to separate the differences in the relationship between bias and favoritism. Our emotions and ratings of others basically reflects our biass. whereas rejection and concerns of credence describe our favoritisms. Therefore person who shows favoritism may non be bias. ( Wagstaff. 2005. p1 ) . Prejudice is a individual or group attitude which may or may non develop into favoritism. It is an attitude as opposed to an action. Discrimination is non ever the consequence of bias. There are instances where bias is non needed for favoritism whilst the jurisprudence prevents bias from going favoritism now ; this was non ever the instance. In some instances the jurisprudence makes people know apart. whether they feel prejudice or non. ( Haralambos A ; Rice. 2002. p272 ) . An illustration of this was LaPierre’s survey which examined willingness to expose bias and favoritism to a Chinese twosome at a clip of anti-oriental sentiment. He travelled across America with the twosome. in entire they visited over 250 constitutions and were refused service merely one time. After returning place LaPierre sent letters to all the constitutions visited inquiring if they would function members of the Chinese race 91 % replied no they would non. Critics have besides stated that the letters may hold gone to the directors or proprietors of the constitutions who may hold been prejudiced themselves while staff were non. Furthermore they may besides hold thought they were reflecting the wants of their invitees. Another ground they may hold been served is because LaPierre accompanied them. The couple radius first-class English. they were good presented and gracious this could all assist towards being accepted as invitees. There are many defects in this survey but it does demo there are differences between bias and favoritism. ( Haralambos A ; Rice. 2002. p272 ) . A school instructor Elliot ( 1977 ) conducted an experiment in order to assist understand the effects of bias and favoritism. The first twenty-four hours the category of nine twelvemonth olds were told kids with bluish eyes were superior to the kids with brown eyes. The brown eyed kids were to be kept in their topographic point by the blue eyed kids and limitations placed upon them such as standing last in line. The brown eyed children’s behaviors changed they did non make every bit good in school work and became down and angry. the bluish eyed pupils became average made derogative statements and oppressed the other kids. The undermentioned twenty-four hours the instructor told them she had made a error it was the brown eyed kids who were superior. When reversed there were the same results. Elliot ( 1977 ) said â€Å"I watched what had been fantastic. concerted. fantastic. thoughtful kids turn into awful. barbarous. know aparting small third-graders in a infinite of 15 procee dingss. † ( Positiveschools. n. d. ) Even though follow up of these kids suggested they were more tolerant of differences between groups and actively opposed favoritism. ( positiveschools. n. d. ) . However critics argue the survey lacked cogency as it was non scientific and she had non put in topographic point equal protection for the kids. Authoritarian personality. realistic group struggle and societal individuality are three theories that are considered to be the foundations of bias and favoritism. Harmonizing to Adorno et Al. ( 1950 ) â€Å"Authoritarian personality theory is based chiefly on psychoanalytic rules. and proposes that prejudices most likely to originate in households that try to implement conventional values through rough discipline† ( Wagstaff. 2005. p3 ) . Harmonizing to this theory. because of guilt and fright of penalty. kids reared in such environments can non register their defeat and aggression towards the legitimate mark their parents. Turning up with no freedom of pick physiques up defeat that leads to the autocratic individual looking for person that is weaker who they can take out their defeats on them in the signifier of bias or favoritism. This is referred to as ‘displaced aggression’ . They are unable to state what they feel to the parents. Adorno created the f-scale as a manner of mensurating the bias of the autocratic individual. Various questionnaires which measured a person’s attitudes of the autocratic personality. The Numberss were high but the inquiries were written in a mode that would hold people reply even if it is non what they think ‘yes-people’ an illustration inquiry was â€Å"Do you think your employers should engage Negros? † ( Allport. 1954. p76 ) . The sample Adorno used was biased as there was non a wide adequate scope of people in it. it was chiefly 2000 in-between classes no Judaic white Americans. All ages and categories should be represented and in a larger sample. The right wing dictatorship graduated table has now replaced the f graduated table and asks inquiries such as â€Å"Is it easy to understand the choler of black people in America? † ( McConahay. 1986. p125 ) . One person’s personality can non explicate how whole societies become bias. This theory does non explicate for illustration how big groups such as Nazi Germany and other states where mass race murder has taken topographic point all became bias. Billing ( 1976 ) states that if bias it a personality characteristic so some people would be more bias than others. Besides Altemeyer ( 1988 ) produced grounds that dictatorship stems from adolescence instead than childhood. striplings who imitated the parents autocratic personalities got rewarded for it. He besides found that societal attitudes more than personality attitudes contributed to autocratic personality. ( Haralambos A ; Rice. 2002. p274 ) . Pettigrew ( 1959 ) believes it is conformance to the group norm that is responsible for mass bias instead than a type of personality. Altemeyer ( 1988 ) found societal alterations produced more additions in autocratic tonss. Pettigrew ( 1958 ) carried out a comparing of four southern province towns. grounds supported white Southerners were more prejudiced against African Americans than white Northerners. Be this because there are a larger figure of autocratic personalities or a difference in cultural norms? He argued that bias can be depicted through cultural norms than on personality. He found that northern conformists were less prejudiced than southern conformist ; his findings were based on the personality questionnaire. ( Haralambos A ; Rice. 2002. p275 ) . Levels of dictatorship were found to be the same in South Africa as America. yet South Africa had a batch more bias because of cultural and political factors. ( Gross. 2012. p49 ) . Realistic group struggle theory provinces conflict arises between groups as a consequence of battles that occur when two groups are in competition with one another ; for limited resources or want to accomplish the same ends. Muzafer Sherif et Al ( 1961 ) devised an experiment to analyze the relationships between competition and bias. There were 20 two in-between category 11 to twelve twelvemonth old male childs based at Robber’s Cave State Park summer cantonment. They were assigned into two groups. Activities were assigned to each group to develop a sense of belonging. At the terminal of the first hebdomad the two groups were introduced. They instantly showed marks of territoriality and combat in sued. Tournaments with awards were so engineered between the groups. At the terminal of the hebdomad the male childs rated themselves in their ain group as superior and even male childs in the group who had been antecedently rated low were elevated. The other group were considered to be darnels and cowards. Attempts were so made to cut down the struggle in which the groups had to work together. A effect for prosecuting these ends was that the groups became friendlier towards one another. Sherrif et. al’s survey showed that the male childs acted otherwise towards one another depending on the state of affairs they were in. When in competition they felt disfavor. hatred and when placed in a scene with common ends friendly relationships were forged. It would be interesting to see the consequences of the survey had it been all misss. this was non a just survey as it was non a representative of all groups in society therefore it is a bias sample. The milieus of the survey were non consistent with every twenty-four hours. This experiment shows how competition for different resources can bring forth bias and that competition can devolve into ill will and struggle. Tyerman A ; Spencer ( 1983 ) contradicted Tajfel’s theory ; they observed a group of English male child lookouts who knew each other before cantonments. They were divided into four groups and placed into similar competition as in the robbers cave. The boys reactions to this did non alteration they re mained friendly and in group solidarity did non increase. This suggests competition is non sufficient entirely for inter group struggle. ( Gross. 2012. p391-392 ) . This theory gives a more practical. offering a more societal point of position to bias. Where this theory does do more sense there are some issues with it. For illustration non all groups that compete with each other consequence in bias and favoritism. Tajfel et Al. ( 1971 ) discovered that in a figure of experiments it was non necessary for competition to be present between groups for there to be prejudice. They discovered merely being a member of the in group as opposed to what they considered to be the out group was plenty to bring forth bias. Locksley et Al ( 1980 ) went further than Tajfel by informing the participants they were being indiscriminately assigned by a coin flip. meaningless names given and even with these conditions at that place was a strong in group penchant. Harmonizing to Brown ( 1988 ) tonss of surveies throughout the universe with a scope of participants from all ages and both sexes. concluded that simply assigning people into groups leads to opinions and beh aviors being biased and discriminatory. It was this find that led to the footing for societal individuality theory. Fiske ( 2004 ) believes this theory describes bias and favoritism more palpably. Realistic group struggle theory does assist explicate additions in bias in war lacerate states. Social individuality theory provinces that favoritism and bias are merely possible if people are categorised into groups so that they identify and develop a sense of belonging. Given that our self-image is of import to us. we strive for this to be positive. Social image comes from societal individuality. Therefore people view the groups to which they belong as positive. They make comparings between their group and others and believe their group to be superior to the others. taking to favoritism in favor of their ain group and have a negative position of other groups. The premise is hence that Prejudice and favoritism consequence from group designation and the demand for a positive image. Tajfel believed worlds are motivated to do sense of the universe around them. he thought this was done through a procedure of classification. assimilation and coherency but these procedures do non explicate bias. he subsequently rose to more points that much of personal individuality comes from socie tal groups and that we strive for self-pride. In Tajfel’s study a group of aliens who had no contact with each other were randomly split into two groups. In one experiment participants were asked to give out money. they favoured their ain group even if it meant losing money ; participants identified with ‘their group’ and had a clear prejudice with the other group. Social individuality theory provinces prejudice is inevitable. ( Haralambos A ; Rice. 2002. p277 ) . Another experiment Tajfel performed was to demo boys a picture by Klee and Kandinsky and asked which they preferred. The male childs were given money to distribute. the male childs gave the money to the fans of the image that they preferred. this showed huge trueness to their in group. even though they did non cognize one another. ( Fiske. 2008. p15 ) Social individuality theory explains a person’s demand for a positive individuality does affect pigeonholing. favoritism and bias. this leads to an in group state of affairs where the in group are seen as positive and is the contrary for the negative and its out groups. Though on a larger graduated table this theory does non explicate utmost signifiers of bias. relationships between groups are non merely about being seen positively but they can be for grounds such as a power. money and scarce resources. these can take to prejudice and favoritism. In Pakistan we are lead to believe the Taliban are stand foring its people and they are contending for their freedom. That westerners are at that place to assist the people. Yet when 11 twelvemonth old Malala Yousafzai spoke out and wrote a web log for the B. B. C. it resulted in her being shot in the caput. â€Å"Malala does non desire to play to some western-backed or Taliban-loved stereotype. She shows us all there are voices out at that place that demand to be heard. if merely to assist the state happen democracy that is for and from the people. all the people. † ( BBCNews. 2012. p1 ) . This can non be put down to societal individuality theory. This theory is able to explicate stereotypes bias and favoritism and all are seen as a demand in the person for a positive individuality. Preferences lead to the positive in group stereotype and hence will take to prejudice and favoritism which will favor the in group but will be the antonym for the out group at that place by bring forthing negative favoritism towards the out group. Social individuality theory does non explicate utmost signifiers of bias Brown and Lunt ( 2002 ) province how a theory based on attitudes. such as in-group favoritism can. explicate the systematic slaughter of 1000000s in Nazi decease cantonments? This theory concentrates on two groups the in group and the out group with two groups it is easy to make a them and us state of affairs but what happens when a 3rd or 4th group is introduced at that place will non be the same polarization and hence the same prejudice will non be created. DecisionSome research workers believe bias is caused by a fright of aliens or alteration. while others see it as a type of jingoism sing issues such as patriotism or faith. However there is general understanding that bias is learned. It is safe to state that no one theory can explicate all countries of bias and favoritism. However they all contribute to giving us some apprehension as to how bias and favoritism become portion of our society. Fiske ( 2008 ) is working on a theory which suggests we are born prejudiced. She has been detecting encephalon activity utilizing M. R. I scanners. analyzing the amygdaloid nucleus part which is the fear response of the encephalon. This is triggered when we judge people or events we deem endangering Fiske’s findings suggest are witting try acquiring the bomber witting to halt unwanted biass. ( Fiske. 2008. p16 ) .

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

George Orwell and Arthur Miller essays

George Orwell and Arthur Miller essays Arthur Miller and George Orwells writings are perceptive of Biblical views concerning social flaws and political corruption. The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is based on the McCarthy trials, which caused the errors of the society to be revealed. These trials were a difficult time in America. Many innocent people were persecuted because they did not conform to the harshness of society. In Animal Farm, George Orwell figuratively uses symbolism to display the dominating politics in Russia at that time. Animal Farm is filled with examples of political corruption. One example is when the animals over throw the owner of the farm so they can set up their own government. They wish to set up a communist government. Napoleon and Snowball, the competing leaders of Animal Farm, both fight for the controlling position, but Snowball proves to be less powerful and falls under the rule of Napoleon. Within this government are many flaws. A communist government is one that has only one absolute ruler. A problem naturally occurs in society when one person is allowed too much power. In Animal Farm, Napoleon makes himself the sole ruler. Orwell displays Napoleon so well that the reader understands his character on a literal level (Meyers 131). The satiric allegory Orwell uses to subtlely describe communist Russia is evident in every detail (Meyers 133). At the beginning of the book, Major gives a speech expository of orthodox Marxism. Napoleon represents Stalin and Snowball symbolizes Trotsky, beca use of their opposite personalities and beliefs (Meyers 136). The major events in Russias history described in Animal Farm are Stalins forced collectivization, the Great Purge Trials, and the diplomacy with Germany that ended with Hitlers invasion in 1941 (Meyers 139). Napoleon is deceived when Frederick gives him forged bank notes, which represent the Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact of August 1939 (Meyers 141). The conf ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

W. E. B. Du BoisThe Souls of Black Folk(1903) Essays - Free Essays

W. E. B. Du Bois'The Souls of Black Folk(1903) Essays - Free Essays W. E. B. Du Bois'The Souls of Black Folk(1903) is a seminal work in African American literature and an American classic. In this work Du Bois proposes that "the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line." His concepts of life behind the veil of race and the resulting "double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others," have become touchstones for thinking about race in America. In addition to these enduring concepts,Soulsoffers an assessment of the progress of the race, the obstacles to that progress, and the possibilities for future progress as the nation entered the twentieth century. Du Bois examines the years immediately following the Civil War and, in particular, the Freedmen's Bureau's role in Reconstruction. The Bureau's failures were due not only to southern opposition and "national neglect," but also to mismanagement and courts that were biased "in favor of black litigants." The Bureau did have successes as we ll, and its most important contribution to progress was the founding of African American schools. Since the end of Reconstruction in 1876, Du Bois claims that the most significant event in African American history has been the rise of the educator, Booker T. Washington, to the role of spokesman for the race. Du Bois argues that Washington's approach to race relations is counterproductive to the long-term progress of the race. Washington's acceptance of segregation and his emphasis on material progress represent an "old attitude of adjustment and submission." Du Bois asserts that this policy has damaged African Americans by contributing to the loss of the vote, the loss of civil status, and the loss of aid for institutions of higher education. Du Bois insists that "the right to vote," "civic equality," and "the education of youth according to ability" are essential for African American progress. Du Bois relates his experiences as a schoolteacher in rural Tennessee, and then he turns his attention to a critique of American materialism in the rising city of Atlanta where the single-minded attention to gaining wealth threatens to replace all other considerations. In terms of education, African Americans should not be taught merely to earn money. Rather, Du Bois argues there should be a balance between the "standards of lower training" and the "standards of human culture and lofty ideals of life." In effect, the African American college should train the "Talented Tenth" who can in turn contribute to lower education and also act as liaisons in improving race relations. Du Bois returns to an examination of rural African American life with a presentation of Dougherty County, Georgia as representative of life in the southern Black Belt. He presents the history and current conditions of the county. Cotton is still the life-blood of the Black Belt economy, and few African Americans are enjoying any economic success. Du Bois describes the legal system and tenant farming system as only slightly removed from slavery. He also examines African American religion from its origins in African society, through its development in slavery, to the formation of the Baptist and Methodist churches. He argues that "the study of Negro religion is not only a vital part of the history of the Negro in America, but no uninteresting part of American history." He goes on to examine the impact of slavery on morality. In the last chapters of his book, Du Bois concentrates on how racial prejudice impacts individuals. He mourns the loss of his baby son, but he wonders if his son is not better off dead than growing up in a world dominated by the color-line. Du Bois relates the story of Alexander Crummel, who struggled against prejudice in his attempts to become an Episcopal priest. In "Of the Coming of John," Du Bois presents the story of a young black man who attains an education. John's new knowledge, however, places him at odds with a southern community, and he is destroyed by racism. Finally, Du Bois concludes his book with an essay on African American spirituals. These songs have developed from their African origins into powerful expressions of the sorrow, pain, and exile that characterize the African American experience. For Du Bois, these songs exist "not simply as the sole American music,

Thursday, November 21, 2019

College Book Report on Miracle At Philadelphia Essay

College Book Report on Miracle At Philadelphia - Essay Example One of the latest full-service entries in the history survey sweepstakes, American Passages is a beautiful text that is well-designed. It is written in an engaging style. The volumes have a friendly tone that is warm without being suffocating. Most students and faculty should find them appealing. The massive amount of carefully chosen illustrations of various kinds are nicely reproduced. The maps are also good, with some exceptions. Each paper volume has the same set of appendices, including the Declaration of Independence; the Constitution; the nations population, 1790-1998; the admission of states to the Union; presidential elections and administrations; and the justices of the Supreme Court. The volumes split in an unusual way, which is an improvement on the traditional arrangement, especially for Reconstruction specialists. There are two overlap chapters rather than one, and the second volume begins in mid-war, with early Union occupations and the first stirrings of release, rath er than in 1865, reflecting an interpretative trend pioneered by Eric Foner. This novel approach owes much to the breadth and vision of lead author Edward L. Ayers, whose interest in and knowledge of Southern history and Civil War culture is well known. Volume one takes the story to 1877, ending with chapter sixteen, while volume two begins with chapter fifteen, "Blood and Freedom, 1863-1867." Two maps start each volume: the first shows the states and their capitals, with important places in the text highlighted; the second is topographical. Each section (two to four chapters) of the narrative has time lines with key dates for politics and diplomacy; social and cultural events; and economics and technology I first read this book several years ago for my high school American History class, and I just recently read it again. This book is excellent no matter

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Doctrine of Determinism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Doctrine of Determinism - Essay Example All the elements that make the world function are constantly interacting with each other. These interactions follow a certain order (cosmic) sometimes. At other times these functional elements are in a state of disorder (chaos). The interactions categorize the world into two kinds. The first is the phenomenal world, which stands tall on our perception of reality. The second is the deterministic world, which advocates a sure-shot perspective on everything that happens. Consequently, a phenomenal world is an outcome of chance and randomness; while the deterministic world leaves no scope for chance or probability, apparently. But what is obvious is not always true. Recent scientific studies have put forth randomness as central to the universe. A physical being's genetic make up is the result of certain permutations and combinations that are purely random. So an individual is a consequence of cosmic coincidence! Biology justifies that. The Oxford dictionary defines chance as a possibility of something happening. Probability and likelihood are the other synonyms. In fact, we devise logic on the basis of chance. There are infinite situations when probabilistic logic becomes the foundation for sound reason and subsequent action. The notion of expected utility is the outcome of the probabilistic calculus. I work hard because I think it betters my chances to succeed. The practical dimension of chance makes it the central element in the otherwise deterministic world! Determinism is an apparent antonym of chance. Determinism looks so scientifically grounded, but it has a philosophical foundation in the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR). German rationalist, Leibniz, an adherent to this principle used it extensively in his philosophical findings. According to the Principle of Sufficient Reason, there is a reason why something happens in a particular way and not in some other way. It is a powerful principle. It defies the existence of chance in the real world. So if chance exists, then Principle of Sufficient Reason fails. Perhaps. Perhaps not. So we might observe that determinism is an offshoot of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Both the concepts seem to be in synergy. Determinism defies chance and so does the Principle of sufficient reason. So how are the two concepts different The Principle of Sufficient Reason seems to justify the concept of rational thought. But a detailed analysis brings out something drastically different. If this principle is to be believed, then there has to be a justification for anything and everything. Subsequently, there has to be a reason as to why there should be a reason for anything to happen. But Leibniz has offered no explanation for this. It is an underived principle. So what is the rationale for something, which has no reason or logic The explanation of the principle refutes its existence. Strange paradox. Another interesting concept that is significant in the explanation of the Principle of Sufficient Reason vis--vis the concept of determinism is the principle of Universal Sufficient Causation. According to the concept of Universal Suff

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay Example for Free

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay According to the peer material provided for review entitled â€Å"Water and Air Pollution Analysis† dated September 19, 2007, among the main environmental problems of Arkansas is water pollution. The paper stated that polluted water caused people to be sick, obliging them to file a lawsuit against several big poultry farms believed to have caused the problem brought about by chicken waste. This hints at the problem of ground water contamination. The paper also said that because of the proliferation of chicken farms in the area, chicken waste is being widely used as fertilizers by farms, resulting to agricultural runoff which pollutes their streams and rivers. Elsewhere in the paper, the author also claimed that the agricultural runoff which is being conveyed by White River to the Mississippi River â€Å"leads to algae blooms that take oxygen from the water and kills fish. † This is a case of surface water pollution. The leading environmental issue in Arkansas, therefore, is ground water and surface water pollution from agricultural runoff. The chicken waste being used as fertilizer contains harmful elements which seeps through the layers of soil and contaminate the sources of ground water. According to information released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), chicken waste contains a combination of fungus, bacteria, and arsenic. Arsenic is found in chicken waste because â€Å"organic arsenic compounds are extensively added to poultry feed to enhance growth. † Therefore, if the chicks grow rapidly, the profit of the poultry company is increased. According to the EPA, â€Å"the most common arsenical poultry feed is Roxarsone [and ] by design, most of the arsenic, which is number one on the EPAs toxic substance list, is excreted in the manure of the chicken. † (Lundy Davis, 2003) In other words, if this organic arsenic manages to seep through the layers of soil, it could easily contaminate the groundwater which is the source of the people’s drinking water. In the face of this hazard, it is paramount that efforts should be exerted by the residents of Arkansas to push for the illegalization of adding organic arsenic to poultry feeds. The people should organize themselves into a lobby group, hire lawyers if necessary to assist them, and approach government officials to achieve this objective. A broad united front is needed for this purpose because poultry raisers, a rather strong lobby group itself, would not take things sitting down since removing organic arsenic compound from poultry feeds would inevitably mean reduced profit for the industry. Over-fertilization should also be avoided. The amount of chicken waste being spread over the fields should not be overdone so that the seepage could be contained. Crop specialization should likewise be avoided because specialized crops usually require more fertilizer to achieve a high production level. The tendency to provide more fertilizer to specialized crops therefore could lead to over-fertilization. For the farming community of Arkansas, crop rotation and the planting of cover crops is advisable. Crop rotation is planting different kinds of crops alternately in order to enhance the quality of the soil and allow reduced use of fertilizer. Cover crops, on the other hand, refer to the types of crop which has a rooting system capable of storing nitrogen. If farmers could plant these kinds of crops, they could avoid the use of large amounts of fertilizers. (Pedersen, 1997) Surface water pollution due to agricultural runoff could be prevented or reduced in several ways. One of them is the maintenance or restoration of natural riparian zones. A riparian zone is an area of vegetation which is usually found near the waterways. In some areas, farmers destroy these riparian zones to enlarge their farms. If they had done this, it is time that they restore them because riparian zones act as buffers which prevent the agricultural runoff to go down the streams or rivers. (Overmann, n. d. ) In areas where the farms are situated in steep hillsides overlooking the rivers, constructing â€Å"terraces† is a good solution. Terraces refer to the short slopes planted with grass or other types of cover crops which are alternating with the level areas planted with crops. These terraces â€Å"hold the slope in place† and prevents agriculture runoff from easily reaching the waterways. â€Å"Contour farming† could also be practiced by farmers in Arkansas. Iowa farmers have applied this method with some success. In the traditional method of farming, the crops are planted in straight rows. Under this method, however, water could easily run down the slope or hill following the rows. In the contour farming, the crops are planted in rows which circle around the slope in curves, thereby breaking the flow of water. This prevents runoff from going down directly to the river. (Iowa Association of Naturalists, n. d. ) In New Orleans, the situation is slightly different. Water pollution is also caused by runoff but here it comes from the industrial plants which pour their industrial wastes into the rivers. Mining activities are also a source of runoff in New Orleans. Floods and storms also contribute to water pollution in the area. For instance, when Hurricane Katrina struck, it caused a lot of havoc in the area including polluting the waterways. The sewerage system was destroyed, causing liquid and solid wastes to be spilled into the rivers and the ocean. Air pollution is caused by geothermal plants which are emitting harmful substances into the environment. Turbulences popularly known as Building Wakes accelerate the rate of diffusion of these substances to the environment. The frequent occurrence of dust storms is another source of smog while the greenhouse effect contributes substantial emissions of hydrofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. Water pollution in New Orleans has caused people to suffer from dysentery and cholera and even displaced some residents from their homes because of polluted drinking water supply. The overt effects of air pollution, on the other hand, are asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The causes of pollution in the two areas may differ, but the effects are similarly destructive and, in some cases, life-threatening. Arkansas and New Orleans should both fight pollution, mustering all the resources available to them. References Iowa Association of Naturalists. (n. d. ). Iowa Water Pollution. Retrieved September 23, 2007 2007 from http://www.extension. iastate. edu/Publications/IAN103. pdf Lundy Davis. (2003). Something Fowl in the Air – Poultry Industry Contamination. PR Newswire. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://www. animalsvoice. com/PAGES/writes/editorial/news/invest/fowl_air. html Overmann, S. R. (n. d. ). Water Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://agripollute. nstl. gov. cn/MirrorResources/10087/update30. html Pedersen, T. L. (1997). Agricultural Run-Off as a Source of Drinking Water Contamination. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://extoxnet. orst. edu/faqs/safedrink/ag. htm

Friday, November 15, 2019

Greek Theatre :: essays research papers

â€Å"Greek Theatre† Hello my name is Chris Gerald and I want to tell you about Thespis. The honor of the beginning of theatre should be given to one man. His name is Thespis. With his chorus he would carry his belongings on a cart whose floor and tailboard could form an improvised stage. In traveling from one festival to another eventually he reached Athens, Greece. He was said to be the first to win a prize at the newly established festival in the city of Dionysia. The great innovation that Thespis made was to detach himself from the chorus, and engage in dialogue in the character of god or the hero whose deeds were being celebrated. He was said to be the first actor as well as a manager. Thespis was the first unsanctified person who dared to assume the character of a god.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The most important feature of their costumes was the mask, said to have been introduced by Thespis. Masks were made of lightwood, cork or linen. These enabled three actors in a tragedy to play several parts each. It also allowed a theatre staffed entirely of men to Impersonate woman since woman were not allowed to be in plays. More than thirty types of masks are said to have existed. Each one showing age, standing, sex, fear, rage, hate, and despair.â€Å"My Greatest Fear†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Of all the fears in life, my greatest would definitely have to be the loss of my parents. My parents have had a great influence in my life. Threw thick and thin they have been there right by my side. I would be lost without them. My childhood memories of my mom are always warm. I can remember her tucking me in for bed every night. She always has good advice for me in every situation I am in. If I ever lost her it would be a great chunk out of my life. I wouldn’t have anyone to confide in. My dad is the provider for our house. I can remember one year he worked threw Christmas just to keep his job. That was a very sad point in my life. He always makes sacrifices for our family. He helps me the most when my mom and me are having trouble.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Personal Space and the Impact of Eye Contact Essay

As being a very important part of the human’s behavior, Personal Space and eye contact attracted a lot of scientists and research institutions. As Jeff Hughes and Morton Goldman (1978) have shown that how variations in eye contact and of experimental confederate affected the violation of personal space. Different people have different definitions to the term ‘Personal Space’. Personal Space may be denned as the area individuals maintain around themselves into which others cannot intrude without arousing discomfort (Hayduk, 1978). Personal Space is often described as a bubble of space surrounding a person. Buchanan, Goldman & Juhnke (1977) defines Personal Space as ‘a physical space surrounding an individual which, when intruded upon, generates an observable reaction of discomfort or flight’. The first factor to be considered that influences a person’s personal space is body position. Whether a person is sitting down or standing up can greatly affect their personal space. Hartnett, Bailey and Hartley (1974) claims that â€Å"for both the short and tall Os, the subjects were approached closer in the sitting position. From a territorial point of view, it could be that people believed that they are not really invading the personal space of others when they were in a position that seemed less threatening, which is sitting. The second factor to be considered that affects personal space is physical disability. Wright (1983) suggests that bad attitudes and perceptions about people with physical disabilities are highly retentive, and cannot be easily removed or changed. Kleck (1968) has also confirmed that people tend to give more personal space in social interactions to people with physical disabilities as compared to people without physical disabilities. A variable that has not been frequently manipulated in personal space research is eye contact. As seen in field experiments conducted by Buchanan, et al. (1977), males generally prefer to violate the personal space of another male who did not offer much eye contact, rather than another male who offered direct eye contact. Another experiment conducted by him shows that â€Å"female subjects preferred to violate the personal space of a female confederate who established eye contact with them†. It is also seen that females tend to avoid invading the personal space of males who had direct eye contact with them. However, females would rather violate the personal space of a male who are smiling at them and gazed directly at them, as compared to a male who had their backs turned. And according to Argyle and Dean, the eye contact is significantly reduced as proximity is increased and their finding that eye contact unpleasant or is to be avoided as proximity increase suggests that variations in the way a person gazes at others could affect intrusions into that person’s personal space. From these readings, it is expected that when two people approach each other with eye contact, the personal space between them will be bigger than without eye contact.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Occupational Safety and Health Essay

What is OSHA? OSHA is an abbreviation for Occupational Safety & Health Administration which is a government agency under the U.S department of Labor that helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. (____) OSHA is extremely important to the U.S and its labor force in many different ways than one. OSHA assists in safety on the job in several ways such as encouraging employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards, establishing the rights of employers and employees regarding the improvement of workplace safety and health, and also monitoring job-related illnesses and injuries through a system of reporting and record keeping. With the presence of OSHA businesses are required to follow certain regulations and guidelines that not only protect the employees but also prevent any unethical behavior from employers that may result anywhere from a high turnover rate to law suits. OSHA being this significant to the U.S labor force begins to bring about curiosity of what does the rest of the world practice to assure work-related safety on the job. Through research I have noticed that Canada, one of the United States closes neighbors, uses a system called CCOHS or Canadian Centre for occupational health and Safety. The CCOHS has a vision which states: â€Å"We serve Canadians – and the world – with credible and relevant tools and resources to improve workplace health and safety programs. We encourage you to join us in creating a work world without pain, loss or tragedy. We believe that all Canadians have a fundamental right to a healthy and safe working environment. Through our programs, services, knowledge, commitment, and action, CCOHS will continue its efforts to advance health and safety in the workplace† (____) CCOHS was established in 1978, to promote the total well-being – physical, psychosocial and mental health of working Canadians by providing information, training, education, management systems and solutions that support health, safety and wellness programs. (___) CCOHS is governed by a  tripartite Council representing government, employers and employees to ensure a balanced approach to workplace health and safety issues. CCOHS offers a range of workplace health and safety services to help organizations raise awareness, assess risks, implement prevention programs, and improve health, safety and well-being. Canada’s CCOHS and the United States’ OSHA are quite similar in the respect to fulfilling its obligation to encourage workplace health and safety, and reassure attitudes and procedures that will lead to better-quality worker physical and mental health through an extensive range of products and services. CCOHS provides a selection of public service initiatives at no charge to the user, such as OSH Answers, the person-to-person Inquiry Service, newsletters, and the workscape online discussion board to educate employees of implemented safety procedures and terms of CCOHS. This is Canada’s procedure to educate and encourage a safe, sufficient work environment. This is similar in term of the many programs that OSHA offers for training/education and the medical management program such as for CTD’s. The medical management program, through OSHA, ensures understanding of early identification, evaluation, and treatment of signs and symptoms to prevent their recurrence and to aid in their prevention. (pg. 53) In conclusion, we may come to the understanding that both the U.S and Canada aim to complete the same fundamental purpose within the work force which is safety. Although both systems titles may not be the same, they both have the same emphasis of ensuring and improving health programs concerning employers and employees. Both countries take pride in establishing and enforcing mandatory on the job safety and health standards. From my research I feel safe and now more educated while working within the U.S and if ever I were to move to Canada that comforting feeling would remain present.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cicely Tyson Quotes on Life, Acting and More

Cicely Tyson Quotes on Life, Acting and More Cicely Tyson, a stage and film actress, is known for roles in such projects as  Roots,  The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman,  Sounder  (which won her an Oscar nomination),  Fried Green Tomatoes,  The Help,  King  (in which she played Coretta Scott King),  A Woman Called Moses  (where she played Harriet Tubman),  The Marva Collins Story,  The Women of Brewster Place  and more. Selected Quotes from Cicely Tyson Challenges make you discover things about yourself that you never really knew. Theyre what make the instrument stretch - what make you go beyond the norm.It is so very difficult for me to say which of the roles Ive done is my favorite. Its like asking me which of three best friends is my favorite. I feel very close to each of these women because each afforded me an experience that allowed me tremendous growth.In my early years, there were a number of experiences that made me decide I could not afford the luxury of just being an actress. There were a number of issues I wanted to address. And I wanted to use my career as a platform.I am not a quitter. I will fight until I drop. It is just a matter of having some faith in the fact that as long as you are able to draw breath in the universe, you have a chance.When I attack a role, be it TV, film or stage,  the first thing I say is, I dont want to know anything.  If its good I dont want to hear it;  if its bad I dont want to hear it .  The only thing either thing can do is distract me.  I like to stay focused. I think when you begin to think of yourself as having achieved something, then theres nothing left for you to work towards. I want to believe that there is a mountain so high that I will spend my entire life striving to reach the top of it.You never know what motivates you.In my work, people say Im strong. But Im not aware of any of it. If I were conscious of it, that can only get in the way of future performances.I think when you begin to think of yourself as  having achieved something,  then theres nothing left for you to work towards.  I want to believe that there is a mountain so high  that I will spend my entire life striving to reach the top of it.One lady told me that before she saw Sounder she didnt believe black people could love each other, have deep relationships in the same way as white people.I was in California when this journalist made a blanket  statement about the fact that she did not think that  black men and women had the kind of love relationship  t hat Rebecca and Nathan had in Sounder. Ive never encouraged  anyone  to go into this business. But I would never  discourage   anybody  either, because no one could discourage me.I dont condemn anyone for making their choices. If someone chooses those roles, fine.But not for me.  When someone stops me and says, Youre the reason I became an actress,  that lets me know I made the right decision.When I told my mother that I wanted to be an actress, she said, you cant live here and do that, and so I moved out. I was determined to prove her wrong because she was so sure that I was going to go astray. And thats the juice that kept me going.We have to support our own films.  If we dont, how can we expect others to support them? More Quotes by Notable Women: All  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z Explore Womens Voices and Womens History Womens Voices  - About Womens QuotesBiographiesToday in Womens History About These Quotes Quote collection  assembled by  Jone Johnson Lewis. Each quotation page in this collection and the entire collection  © Jone Johnson Lewis. This is an informal collection assembled over many years. I regret that I am not be able to provide the original source if it is not listed with the quote. Citation information (example):Jone Johnson Lewis. Dorothy Height Quotes. About Womens History. URL: . Date accessed: (today).  (More on how to cite online sources including this page)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Taking another Pass at Passed

Taking another Pass at Passed Taking another Pass at â€Å"Passed† Taking another Pass at â€Å"Passed† By Maeve Maddox In my early days as a classroom teacher, I would occasionally finish giving a lesson on some aspect of English grammar or punctuation with the feeling that it had been so clear and so filled with wonderful examples that my students would never commit a related error again. It didn’t take me long to learn that common errors are common for a reason. Minds differ. Not everyone perceives things in quite the same way. A case in point is the problem that many writers have with the words past and passed. So far we’ve had two DWT posts on the past/passed usage: Alis Passed vs Past and my Confusing Passed with Past A recent e-mail question sent me back to read the comments and questions prompted by these posts. The comments indicate the extent and nature of the confusion that exists concerning the use of passed and past. Even some of the commentators who felt they understood the usage gave incorrect information in the explanations they offered. Some remarks suggest that the writer is trying to read more into the choice between passed and past than is warranted by a choice between a verb form and an adverb or a preposition. Dr. Babosar, the founder of GHB BioMedical Inc. who dedicates his life in the XXX industry for the Passed/Past 20 years. (the fact is he is still in this industry and still running the company) It doesn’t matter if the man is still in the industry or not. The word needed is an adjective: the past 20 years. It was the sound of horses being ridden past.†¨It was the sound of horses being ridden passed. The latter makes sense [says the commentator]. The horses pass the person, so they passed the person, therefore it is the sound they make as they approach and then pass the person. It more correctly describes the sounds. Again, too much ratiocination is going into this writer’s choice between past and passed. The function of the word in the sentence determines which form is called for. Ridden is a verb form. The word that follows it is an adverb. Passed cannot be used as an adverb. Past can. Precise Edit made this observation in one of the comments: In my experience, second-language learners are less likely to make this mistake [between passed and past] than native English speakers, perhaps because language learners write and speak from a background of training and not natural language use. I’m speculating, of course, but I wonder if direct training in usage and grammar affects this. It’s not speculation. From what I can tell, not much â€Å"direct training in usage and grammar† is going on in U.S. English classes these days. The teaching of formal grammar and rules of spelling and punctuation is perhaps seen as too much akin to that dreaded concept â€Å"rote learning.† Rules of standard usage are often arbitrary and confusing to an individual’s way of looking at things. For that reason they must be taught in the English classroom. Taught, not merely mentioned. The complicated efforts to determine whether to use past or passed in a sentence is a symptom of the way U.S. children are taught to approach all learning. What do you think? How do you feel? Such appeals to the individual have their place, but not when it comes to basic information. Some things need to be memorized and drilled. The parts of speech and the parts of the sentence fall into this category. One more time: passed is the past tense form of the verb to pass: to pass: transitive verb meaning â€Å"to go beyond a point or place† The principal parts are pass, passed, (have) passed, passing Examples: I pass my evenings alone. Please pass the potatoes. I am passing my days in the garden. I am passing all my courses in college. The truck passed the house. His uncle passed away. I have passed my driving test. Charlie has passed out the papers. The cat had passed beyond the fence before we noticed she was out. The word past can be used as more than one part of speech, but never as a verb. past: noun meaning â€Å"that which has happened in past time.† Ex. That’s all in the past. It’s usually preceded by the word â€Å"the.† past: adjective meaning â€Å"gone by in time; elapsed.† Ex. I haven’t seen him for the past month. past: adverb meaning â€Å"beyond.† Usually the point of reference is supplied by the context. Ex. I cowered as the bullets whizzed past. past: preposition meaning â€Å"beyond.† It differs from an adverb because it is followed by an object. Ex. The bullet whizzed past my head. Two more handy tips: The only verb that belongs in front of passed is some form of have: The days have passed quickly. He had passed his exams before his father lost his job. The horse has passed the finish line. If the verb is is, don’t use passed: For, lo, the winter is past. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Greek Words You Should KnowIn Search of a 4-Dot EllipsisPunctuation Is Powerful

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Economic Consequences of Ageism on the Elderly and the American Research Paper

Economic Consequences of Ageism on the Elderly and the American Healthcare System - Research Paper Example From this paper it is clear that old persons have less employment opportunities and have a lower pay scale as compared to younger employees. The 1967 Equal Employment opportunity Commission provides protection to job applicants and employees from discrimination on the basis of mature age. Aged Americas are an important part of society and can still contribute towards nation building.This report highlights that  the word â€Å"ageism† was coined in 1968 by Robert Butler. The media accepted the term and later it found its way into The Oxford English Dictionary. Ageism has been reported by many old persons and is widely present in the country’s establishment resulting in bigotry in the media, workplace, healthcare and language. For instance, presence of discrimination in case of appointing older persons,   absence of health care in health care institutions, the use of abusive language and the negative portrayal of old persons in cartoons showing them as ugly, cantanker ous and dirty. Negative feelings about a certain group can be called as the negative attitudes. Sickness, impotency, health decline, mental illness, poverty, gloominess, isolation, unattractiveness and futility are the major nine stereotypes depicting bias against elders.A major discrimination against elders is made on the basis of illness faced by majority of their population.  About half of the American population believes that poor health is a grave trouble faced by majority of people over 65.... Negative feelings about a certain group can be called as the negative attitudes. Sickness, impotency, health decline, mental illness, poverty, gloominess, isolation, unattractiveness and futility are the major nine stereotypes depicting bias against elders. A major discrimination against elders is made on the basis of illness faced by majority of their population. About half of the American population believes that poor health is a grave trouble faced by majority of people over 65. However, the fact is that most of the elderly people which constitute more than 85 percent of the elderly population take on strong activities of daily life like ingestion, bathing, etc. Only about 5 percent of these elderly persons are hospitalized. Another stereotype is that older persons have no desire for sexual activity and those who spend ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF AGEISM ON THE ELDERLY AND THE AMERICAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM time in such action can be called as ethically nasty or at the slightest peculiar . The truth is that persons crossing the age of 65 have concern and capability for sexual relationships. They have freedom from alarm of pregnancy, job stress and childbearing errands, free time and more grown-up relations. Ugliness of old people is another common stereotype. Beauty is associated with youth and women particularly fear the loss of their beauty as a result of aging. In contrast to our culture, some cultures like those of the Japanese tend to associate wrinkles and gray hair with insight, development and long term service. Palmore (1999) states that it is thought that age increase from middle age is associated with a decline in ability to learn and remember. But most aged adults tend to keep hold of learning abilities. Illness, lack of education, style of learning,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Is wind power green Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Is wind power green - Essay Example Wind power, though helpful in promoting alternative resource could not sustain the growing need of electricity; the claim about how it reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emissions holds a lot of questionable areas, while its more subtle effects on animals is as fatal as the blatant ones. Wind Power The wind’s molecular structure and versatility in movement are the main reasons why it is a good agent of producing electricity by means of wind turbines. The blades of the turbines are â€Å"designed to capture kinetic energy in the wind† (Layton, n.d.). The heat of the sun combined with the irregularities of the Earth’s surface, are the main factors of wind formation; thus leading us to the idea that wind power is basically an offshoot of solar energy. The origin of using the wind as an energy resource dates back hundreds of years ago when civilizations prosper and began to develop agriculture. According to Redlinger, Andersen, Morthorst, and the United Nations Env ironment Programme (2002), the origins of wind power may be traced back in ancient Asia particularly in some parts of North Asia and the Middle East. In the eve of European navigation, windmills were spread across the European continent particularly in the Netherlands and Denmark, where windmills were used primarily for irrigation. What convinces environmental advocates that wind power is the safest form of renewable energy is the fact that it does not reproduce radioactive chemicals like what nuclear energy does. Truly, wind energy is tried and tested through time. However, the needs of the society nowadays are a far cry from what it is before. If power was only needed to process wheat and other agricultural products, then the amount of power the wind produces would be enough, but looking into the modern context where steel and massive electricity needed to light the country’s households, power generated by the wind would only mean a speck of dust. A Lighter Side of the Issu e Harnessing energy from the natural wind may be the biggest advantage of wind power if compared to fossil fuels or nuclear energy. According to the Energy Resource Center of Wisconsin (n.d.), power plants generally produce toxic by-products such as mercury and lead, which are both lethal to the environment and human and animal health. The use of wind power would likely to reduce the production of these chemicals in such a way that it would prevent contamination of clean natural resources. In addition, an edge that wind power may have among other forms of energy source is the longevity of the system. The wind power equipments have accessible materials for its maintenance and would less likely to require expensive machineries for its sustenance (Cane, 2010). Nowadays, information about the wind power offers a bright future for the environment; however several environmental advocates disagree with this statement. The Other Side In his book Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future, Bryce (2010) regarded the energy by the wind power, a myth; more-so with its efficiency as electricity provider. In the case of Denmark’s wind power resources, the wind turbines needed a considerable amount of electric generation capacity (Bryce 2010). Basing on the Denmark’

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Aluminium Foil ((Corporate Social Responsibility)) & Environmental Assignment

Aluminium Foil ((Corporate Social Responsibility)) & Environmental Impact - Assignment Example The availability of this element is so high that a there is very little chance of demand ever surpassing supply. Producing aluminum is a process that needs a lot of energy; in fact, the commercial growth of this metal in the late nineteenth century was predominantly as a result of the development and accessibility of inexpensive and ample hydroelectric power that has remained the key source of energy for the sector. Energy that is used in the production of aluminum is trapped in the metal, thus if aluminum is re-melted in order to make it new metal, only five percent of the energy that was used initially is needed as ninety five percent of the initial investment in energy will remain in the metal. Since the production of aluminum started, used aluminum has remained a significant source of new metal and based on the industry estimates, almost seventy percent of the aluminum in use will be recycled eventually as it is less costly compared extraction of the metal from its ore. Depending on the previous use of aluminum, the life cycle of aluminum products varies significantly. When aluminum is used in packaging in the form of a foil, it might have a life cycle of approximately a few weeks but when it is utilized as a cladding material in buildings, its life cycle may be approximately a century or even longer. This implies that aluminum has a positive profile in regards to its abundant availability, durability as well as tendency to be recycled at very low costs in terms of energy (Green, 2007, p. 125). Therefore, aluminum foil can make a significant positive contribution towards the conservation of other resources in the environment. Aluminum foil is produced from an alloy of aluminum that contains between ninety-two and ninety nine percent of aluminum, and come in numerous widths and strengths since they can be applied to thousands of applications. Aluminum foil used for manufacturing thermal insulations in the construction

Monday, October 28, 2019

Traffic Accidents Essay Example for Free

Traffic Accidents Essay Traffic accidents are on the rise these days. Most of the accidents caused injuries or either worse death. Research have found that most of the accidents are caused by inexperienced drivers, for example young drivers. Young drivers tend to be more daring and are unable to avoid a crush when they face one. They tend to be more daring after drinking alcohol at night and this causes them to lose control of the car. Drunk driving will not only risk a person’s own life but may also cause an innivent life to be lost. The government should encourage the driving school to conduct driving lessons foryung drivers for a longer period. This will give them a clear picture about how accidents happen and teach them about the safety of others on the road. Drivers that have been in an accident after drunk driving should be ban from driving for at least two years and be given driving lessons again. However, for the aged drivers, the government should not only lowered the age limit but also check the capability of the aged drivers for instance eyesight, hearing and other related health conditions to ensure safe driving. It does not mean that an aged person are not fit to drive and has a problem with the heart but a young or a middle aged person could also have heart failure these days. To conclude, I feel that to raise the agelimit of young drivers arenot the best solution but to give them more driving lessons about the problems they may encounter on the road and to ban them from driving if they have caused an accident due to carelessness. As for the age drivers, as long as they are capable on the road before a certain age and there are no health issues there shouldn’t be a problem.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee :: To Kill a Mockingbird Essays

â€Å"To Kill A Mockingbird†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After watching To Kill A Mockingbird, the characters I see the author trying to teach me through is Atticus Finch, Scout and Jem, and Arthur â€Å"Boo† Radley.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To begin, Atticus Finch has experienced and understood evil throughout his life. He has been confronted with prejudice and racism, but has not lost his faith in the human capacity for goodness. Atticus understands from his own experiences and reflection that most people have both good and bad qualities. Also, through Atticus, the important thing in life is to appreciate the good qualities and understand the bad qualities by treating others with sympathy and trying to see life from their perspective. He tries to teach this ultimate moral lesson to Jem and Scout to show them that it is possible to live with conscience without losing hope or becoming cynical. For example, in this way, Atticus is able to admire Mrs. Dubose’s courage even while deploring her prejudice. In much the same way, Scout’s progress as a character is defined by her gradual development toward understanding the lessons Atticus Finch tries to teach her when Scout at last sees Boo Rad ley as a human being. Her newfound ability to view the world from his perspective ensures that she will not become jaded as she loses her innocence.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Secondly, I believe the most inspirational and in depth character in this movie was Jean Louise â€Å"Scout† Finch. From beginning to end, she learns to control her temper, to back away from fights, and to respect Calpurnia. She really learns her value to the family. Scout is also able to maintain her basic faith in human nature despite the shock and unfairness of Tom Robinson’s courtroom conviction. However, Jem’s faith in truth, justice and humanity is very badly damaged. He does not understand why all of this is happening. Prejudice and racism does not make any sense to Jem. Initially, Scout and Jem assume that all people are good by nature and tolerant of others. It is not until they see things from a more realistic adult perspective that they are able to confront evil, as well as prejudice, and incorporate it into their understanding of the world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lastly, Arthur â€Å"Boo† Radley has for decades been maliciously slandered in the county. The people that have done so do not know Boo and the reason they can make such judgments escapes me. When there was a series of pets being mysteriously slaughtered, the consensus was that it was performed by Boo.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Atlantic Slave Trade Essay

A slave can be defined as a person who is the property of and wholly subject to another, a bond servant or a person entirely under the domination of some influence or person. Slavery was well recognized in many early civilizations. Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkad Ian Empire, Assyria, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, the Islamic Caliphate, the Hebrews in Palestine, and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas all had either a form of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment or birth of slave children to slaves. However, as the sixteenth century approached, so did the change in the way slavery would be looked at, for years to come. The Atlantic slave trade became the name of the three part economic cycle that involved four continents for four centuries and millions of people. The Atlantic slave trade or the middle passage, triangular trade and slavery affected the economy of Europe, Africa and the Americas in both negative and positive aspects. Starting in the 1430’s Portuguese were the first to sail down the coast of Africa to search for gold and jewels. The Portuguese had to extend their power across the co+ast because Sub-Saharan Africa’s trade routes were controlled by the Islamic Empire. By 1445, The Portuguese conquered three African countries and created trading posts. This allowed them access to Europe across the Sahara. Initially, the Portuguese traded copperware, cloth, tools, wine and horses for pepper, ivory and most importantly gold. The first slave purchase is said to have taken place in 1441 when the Portuguese caught two African males while they were along the coast. The Africans in the nearby village paid them in gold for their return. Eventually, they developed the idea that they could get more gold by transporting slaves along Africa’s coast. The Muslims were enticed by the idea of slavery as they used them as porters and for profit. Portugal had a monopoly on the export of slaves in Africa for more than two hundred years. This encounter is the beginning of one of the most tragic events in history, the Atlantic triangular trade (Thomas 1997). A triangular trade evolves when a region has export commodities that aren’t required in the region which its major imports come and provides a method for trade imbalances. The triangular trade is named for the rough shape it makes on a map. It worked like a triangle between all the colonies that were involved. For centuries the world was took part in its most successful trading system. There where nearly fifteen million Africans were shipped to both North and South America for more than three-hundred. Slaves, cash crops and manufactured goods were the most traded between the Americas, Europe and Africa. The Europeans controlled the first stage of the trade by carrying supplies for sale and trade such as, cloth, spirit, tobacco, beads, shells, metal goods and guns. This was their method of which were used to help expand empires and capture more slaves. These goods were exchanged for purchased and kidnapped African slaves (www. nmm. ac. uk/freedom/viewTheme. cfm/theme/triangular). African kings and merchants would capture the slaves or organize campaigns ran by the Europeans. The motives of the Europeans were based on one thing; they lacked a major source, a work force. It was stated that the Indigenes people were unreliable and Europeans were unsuited to the climate. However, Africans had experience in agriculture, keeping cattle, content with the climate. Africa soon became reliant on the slavery of their people and the profits that came along with it. The next stage involved the slaves being transported by voyage to the Americas and Caribbean, the middle passage (PBS. â€Å"The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage. † http://www. pbs. org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr4. html). The middle passage was a perilous, horrendous journey slaves made across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. The final stage of the Atlantic slave trade was the return to Europe from the Americas with the produce from the slave-labor plantations. Most regions of North and South America were used to provide these raw materials to Europe for manufacturing. This wasn’t the first or only slave trade, but it was the cruelest. What began as a quest for gold ended as a quest for slaves, leaving a major stamp on African and American history (Thomas 1997). Before undergoing the middle passage, slaves faced human misery and suffering. Kidnapped slaves were forced to walk shackled in slave caravans to European coastal forts. Due to the lack of food and energy, half of the slaves became sick and were killed or left to die. Some had the strength to make it so they were left in underground dungeons. For years, Africans were stranded in these dungeons across the coast of Africa.. There, they wait on the embarked horrid encounter of the entire slave trade, the middle passage. None of the previous passengers returned to their homeland so none of the Africans knew what they were about to endure. The voyages were generally organized by companies and investors because they were a huge financial burden(â€Å"The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage). Two theories show the packing of slaves in the European ships; loose and tight packing. Loose packing carried less slaves with the hopes of more room and more slaves making it to the Americas alive and in fair condition. This was exchanged for tight packing. Captains believed despite more casualties, this would yield a greater profit. On occasion, veterinarians inspected the slaves before the voyage to determine which slaves could make it across the Atlantic Ocean. The enslaved Africans were chained together by hand and foot, not even being able to lie on one’s side. They ate, slept, urinated, defecated, gave birth and died all in that one spot. There was overcrowding, inadequate ventilation and little to no sanitation. Twenty percent of every hundred died along the way from either suffocation, starvation, amoebic dysentery, scurvy or a disease such as small pox. The slaves that died were thrown overboard as well as the slaves that showed illness. Some threw their self-overboard risking their life rather than deal with these horrific measures. Approximately fifteen million captured Africans were sent to the Americas. The middle passage was the longest, most dangerous part of the Atlantic slave trade (â€Å"The Middle Passage Experience†). From the seventeenth century on, slaves became the focus of trade between Europe and Africa. Europe had already colonized North and South America as well as the Caribbean islands from the fifteenth century onward. This created an insatiable demand for African laborers, who were deemed â€Å"more fit† to work in the tropical conditions of the New World. The numbers of slaves imported across the Atlantic Ocean steadily increased, from approximately 5,000 slaves a year in the sixteenth century to over 100,000 slaves a year by the end of the eighteenth century (www. mariner. org/captivepassage). Upon their arrival to the Americas, the slaves were washed, greased and placed inside dungeons. The grease added a more appealing look making the slaves appear healthier so the profit would be much higher. European slave traders made sure all of their potential properties were in well condition before bidding. They were branded with a hot iron to keep their identity as a slave. There were two main types of slave auctions; highest bidder or grab and go auctions. Highest bidder was a bidding process which the buyer with the highest bid would get the slave. Grab and go auctions was the process in which the buyer would give the trader an agreed amount of money in exchange for a ticket. This process was where the slaves were released from their dungeon and the buyers would rush and grab the slave they wanted, Each slave would be sold to an owner who owned a great deal of land and worked on either a plantation or mine and there, the living conditions were still only barely better (Curtin 1969) A prominent African, author and a major influence on the enactment of the Slave Trade Act of 1807, Olaudah Equiano was well aware and very familiar with the Atlantic slave trade. At the age of eleven, Equiano and his sister were kidnapped from his village in Nigeria. He survived the middle passage, and taken to the West Indies. He tells how he was bought by Captain Pascal, a British naval Officer as a â€Å"present† for a cousin. He tells how was enslaved in North America for ten years, working as a seaman. In 1766, he bought his freedom and wrote an autobiography, â€Å"The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano,† Equiano gave a firsthand look of the conditions enslaved Africans were forced to live. This document was one of the first documents that explained, thoroughly, the terrible human cruelty of the Atlantic slave trade (Wright et al. 001). Although many lives were taken or at risk, The Atlantic slave trade fulfilled its major goal, profit and change the three continents. Europe, America and Africa’s economy were all affected by the slave trade. Europe’s economy was suffering before the slave trade. The Atlantic slave trade was during the time of recovery for Europe and completely recovered their economy. Because of the success of the trade, they needed more people to manufacture raw materials and export them to Africa. The great supply of jobs created many exports and the income to buy imports. By the end of the slave trade, Europe’s economy was in well standings as one of the wealthiest continents in the world. The America’s economies rose too. They were honored with a free workforce that provided many resources from sugar to cotton. The free labor allotted for them to received one hundred percent of the profit. They were importing more slaves and exporting the goods made by them to gaining wealth. America’s economy became agriculturally stable and soon industrialized. Europe and the Americas economies were affected in a positive way. However, Africa’s economy received a negative effect. Many, for years lived in fear due to slavery. African villages became small and poor. All of the kingdoms that were strong at one time, collapsed and were conquered. They received raw material goods from the slave trade but with nothing shown. The African kings prospered only because they were heavily involved in the slave trade. As the kings’ wealth grew, their economy was at a standstill and eventually failed. The Atlantic slave trade, human cruelty and evil at its finest, had a substantial effect on Europe, the Americas and Africa (www. understandingslavery. com).

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Biopsychosocial Paper Essay

Family Composition Steven currently lives with foster parents. There is another teen age male in the home. According Steven’s file prior to this placement he lived with his biological father, and prior to residing with his biological father Steven was placed in group homes and foster placements, having been previously been removed by CPS from his parent’s care due to substance abuse issues. Steven receives a weekly a weekly 2-hour visit with his biological mother that is supervised by an agency monitor. According to social worker’s case notes these visit take place at a local dinner. Steven is also eligible for weekly observed 1-hour visits with his biological father. However, social worker has written in his case notes that father can no longer make the visits with biological mother due to the fact that he now works graveyard shifts. Social worker’s quarterly report states that â€Å"the mother has had difficulty refraining from discussing inappropriate topics involving her family court case and related topics with Steven during visits. † Also, the mother would some times get defensive when redirected away from discussing these topics. The social worker also wrote in the Quarterly Report that Steven appeared to enjoy visiting with his mother, and would often ask her for things that his foster parents have already said he could not have until he earned it. But the biological mother has been supporting the foster parent’s by not giving into Steven’s begging. According to the Quarterly Report Steven’s foster parents have noticed that his behavioral difficulties at home appear to coincide with his supervised visits with his biological mother. Household Composition According to Steven’s file he has lived in his current placement since March 2, 2007. This home consists of the foster parents, and another teenager placed through the agency mental health program. Quarterly Report states that Steven’s foster father is the primary caregiver. Foster father has told social worker that Steven lies and manipulates the truth and then gets in trouble for this. Social worker states in his case notes that Steven does not appear to think that he is doing anything wrong. Overall, the social worker feels that Steven is comfortable in this home. According to the Quarterly report Steven’s foster father mainly works with him on talking care of his hygiene consistently. As part of an agreement to earn extra cash, Steven is expected to bathe, brush his teeth, apply deodorant, and comb his hair daily. Developmental/Current Health There is no information about Steven’s birth or early development. According to file Steven had a physical examination on April 27, 2007 and was â€Å"diagnosed as a well adolescent†. The doctor commented that he has a history of ADHD and Depression. Steven received new glasses in May 2007. Steven also had a dentist appointment on April 26, 2007 during which he had two cavities filled. Also according to Steven’s file, he has been prescribed psychotropic medications. These include Abilify and Ritalin. Mental Health According to file, Steven has been diagnosed with ADHD, Cognitive Disorder NOS, and Anxiety Disorder NOS. He is currently taking medications for these disorders. He presents with some of the classic ADHD symptoms such as inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity even when he is on his medication. The social worker stated that he is a â€Å"strange kid† and that he can’t or won’t look you in the eyes. He appears to lack self-esteem and self confidence. According to quarterly report, Stevens though process is scattered, and he is mentally and emotionally younger than his chronic logical age of fourteen. Social worker writes that is Steven does not get his way, he shows frustration by pouting, excessive questioning asking why he can’t get his way, and slamming doors. According to case notes, Steven has broken his glasses, a laundry basket, a DVD player, a PlayStation, and has punched a hole in the wall. Steven seems to lack social skills. Intake notes state that he has had a history of physical aggression towards peers at school, and that he is impulsive. Steven’s file indicated that he has been involved in a group through his WRAP services provider to help him with socialization skills, and he attends these meeting on a weekly basis. Steven also receives EMQ Wraparound services for his mental health needs. Quarterly Report states that Steven has an EMQ facilitator that coordinated these services. He receives therapy services once a week contracted through EMQ Family Services. In addition, he has two behaviorists who visit him once a week to work on behavior contracts. Steven is prescribed psychotropic medication. His psychiatrist also works for EMQ. Because these service providers are part of EMQ Wraparound program, Steven is supported with a whole network of specialists who cater to his specific mental health needs. Sexual History According to Steven’s social worker, he is starting to become interested in girls, and likes talking to them and getting their attention. Alcohol and Substance Use History Steven has no alcohol or substance abuse history, but his father has had problems with alcohol. This is why Steven was placed in protective custody. Educational History Steven is currently in the ninth grade at a local public high school. According to his file he has an active IEP that places him in a special day class for the emotionally disturbed (SDC/ED) children. Social worker writes that Steven can handle the class work and homework, but struggles emotionally and behaviorally during class. According to the social workers report, Steven’s last teacher noted that he has difficulty staying in his seat as well as disturbing the students in the class with his talking. According to Stevens IEP he falls within average range in reading, math, written language and oral expression. However, he has difficulty with listening comprehension, handwriting size and spacing, organizing, maintaining focus, and handling frustration. Prevocation skills listed as areas of concern on Steven’s IEP were task completion, social skills and follows directions. Also on the IEP as area’s of need include written language. According to Steven’s IEP, he is able to write multiple paragraphs, but lacks proper writing conventions. The IEP also shows that Steven is passing all his classes with a GPA above a 3. 0. Social worker states that Steven does not want to be in special education classes because it is â€Å"not cool†.