Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on The Film O brother, where art thou - 1049 Words

The Film O brother, where art thou? The film O brother, where art thou? is set in the Great Depression of the 1930’s and emphasizes the struggle between the upper and lower classes by using a variety of cinematic devices. Through the use of these cinematic devices and comedic relief the realities of the Depression are viewed without creating a stark, melancholy, documentary-styled film. Examples in this film of these cinematic devices used to show these realities include: bleak colors, contrasting of light and dark colors, long shots, high-angle shots, and spherical camera lenses. These particular devices provide a glimpse at the realities of the oppression, poverty and despair of many of the American people†¦show more content†¦Another such example, of the use of color to point out the differences in social class, is the use of contracting colors. Many of the people who are dressed in white and light colors are those who have power and money. Other people are dressed in darker colors, perhaps due to the fact that they would have to wash their own clothes rather than being able to have them washed. Pappy O’Daniel, the governor of Mississippi, and his campaign staff are one such example. In particular is a scene in which they are discussing the upcoming election and what should be done on the porch of what can be assumed is Pappy’s house. Not only are the men dressed in whites but the porch and home are also painted white. Pappy is an exemplification of power and money, he is governor and also a well to do businessman. Other people associ ated with Pappy carry out this theme throughout the film as well. The radio station, which Pappy owns (or at least finances) is seen several times and is painted white. Long shots of the radio station are used not to show smallness, as will be discussed later, but to show contrast between the building and the brown dirt surrounding it. The signs of the time are also shown through the use of specific camera shots, which humble the characters and show their frailty. Long Shots, in particular, are used to exemplify the smallness of the characters (without power) in the vastness of the world around them. In the scene in which theShow MoreRelatedFilm Summary for O Brother Where Art Thou?1171 Words   |  5 Pagesabandoned clothes). Carrying Pete in a shoebox, Delmar and Everett go to a restaurant where they meet Big Dan Teague (John Goodman), a one-eyed Bible salesman. Thinking that their box contains money, Big Dan lures them to a field for an advanced tutorial on salesmanship. He violently beats the two men, kills the toad after finding no cash, and steals their car. Everett and Delmar arrive at Everetts hometown, where he attempts to speak to his wife, Penny (Holly Hunter), mother of his seven daughtersRead MoreO Brother, Where Art Thou?: Modern Adaptation of Homers Odyssey1265 Words   |  6 PagesThe film O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a reinterpretation of the epic poem The Odyssey. The Coen brothers, writers and directors of the film, did not over analyze their representation. â€Å"It just sort of occurred to us after we’d gotten into it somewhat that it was a story about someone going home, and sort of episodic in nature, and it kind of evolved into that,† says Joel Coen in Blood Siblings, â€Å"It’s very loosely and very sort of unseriously based on The Odyssey† (Woods 32). O Brother, Where ArtRead MoreO Brother Where Art Thou1597 Words   |  7 PagesApril 12, 2008 Film Analysis â€Å"O Brother Where Art Thou† This old time musical theatrical movie clip was an insightful blast from the past that made you cherish those days where it was inconceivable to not be a gentlemen, and it was a down right shame to be anything less then an honest women. This old time movie with a new age attitude definitely strikes the funny bone of any modern day movie watcher. â€Å"The opening titles inform us that the Coen Brothers O Brother, Where Art Thou is based on HomersRead More O Brother, Where Art Thou? - From Greek Classic to American Original3139 Words   |  13 PagesO Brother, Where Art Thou? - From Greek Classic to American Original In the winter of 2001, American audiences initially paid little attention to Joel and Ethan Coens Depression era, jail-break, musical buddy comedy O Brother, Where Art Thou? The films reputation lingered, however, and over the next seven months O Brother eventually grossed a significant $45.5 million (imdb.com). Loosely adapted from Homer’s The Odyssey, the film focuses on Ulysses Everett McGill’s (George Clooney’s) journeyRead MoreO Brother Where Art Thou Character Analysis1694 Words   |  7 Pages The Coen Brothers’ film, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, is loosely based on Homer’s famous Greek epic, The Odyssey, in that certain features in the film resemble those found in Homer’s epic, but the film still reveals its own sense of originality by making it more relatable to the modern world. While The Odyssey is set in Ancient Greece and O Brother, Where Art Thou? is set in the southern part of the United States during the 1930’s, the w orks are similar in following a protagonist who encountersRead MoreThe s Epic The Odyssey And The Movie O Brother, Where Art Thou?848 Words   |  4 PagesI have watched O’ Brother, Where Art Thou? hundreds of times before taking this class, but until now I had no idea that it was largely based on The Odyssey, by Homer. When I reviewed the movie I realized that it is almost a parallel to The Odyssey. To summarize the film O’ Brother, Where Art Thou?, Ulysseus Everett McGill, played by George Clooney, is doing time in Mississippi. He ends up scamming his way off the chain gang accompanied by Delmar, played by Tim Blake Nelson, and Pete, played by johnRead MoreAnalysis Of O Brother And The Odyssey 1707 Words   |  7 Pagesinto other forms of media, particularly film, which is one of the most prominent forms of media in the modern technological world. One popular adaptation of The Odyssey to film is the Academy Award nominated film O Brother, Where Art Thou where Odysseus is portrayed as escaped convict Ulysses Everett McGill, and he leads 2 other escaped convicts who help him return to his home. There are many differences between the classic epic poem and the modern 2001 film that takes place in rural 1937 MississippiRead MoreAnalysis Of O Brother Where Art Thou 961 Words   |  4 Pagesovercome. In order to do so, Odysseus had to prove his intellectual capacity, strength and determination. â€Å"O Brother Where Art Thou† is a 2000 adventure film which follows the journey of a man named Ulysses Everett McGill as he attempts to make his way back home with two fellow convicts after escaping prison. Although it lacks the structure and does not follow sequence of events of the odyssey, the film portrays many of the fundamental concepts and ideas explored in The Odyssey. In t his paper, I will exploreRead MoreMovie Review : O Brother, Where Art Thou1305 Words   |  6 PagesO Brother, Where Art Thou? is a film that will surely make you want to fall out of your chair laughing, and make you want to get up and dance. This film is an absolute classic. It is hilarious, adventurous, and makes you feel good about yourself. The most unique thing about this film is the main characters break out of jail for the wrong reason, and then go on a wild chase trying to get home. Another unique part about this film is that the main character is currently divorced and wanting to remarryRead MoreThe Odyssey And O Brother, Where Art Thou?1269 Words   |  6 Pagessometimes the movie falls short of the mark. O Brother, Where Art Thou?, however, tends to stay on track with the Odyssey. Due to the fact that O Brother, Where Art Thou? takes place in 1930’s Mississippi, certain plot elements can not correlate directly, but other than that conflicts tend to be similar. Ma jor characters make the same decisions as their Odyssey counterparts, with slightly different motives. Overall, The Odyssey and O Brother, Where Art Thou? have similar and different protagonists,

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Power in International Relations - 2084 Words

The conception is power in International Relations is a key to a better understanding of the discipline. In many cases the definition of power affects the way in which many issues are tackled in foreign policy or security. There are many theories that try to deal with the conception of power, however they make a rather large number of assumptions that might make them difficult to applicable in real life. Furthermore many of them does not take into consideration that power evolves, therefore if we want to understand and conceptualize power in the international sphere it is crucial to analyze different theories and conceptions of it.This essay will argue that power is a broad term that can best be conceptualized and explained in IR by a multiplicity of theories. In making this argument, this essay will first explain why power power is crucial in the study of International Relations. Then two theories of power from the realist tradition , one of the neoliberalist tradition, one of postm odernism and a critical theory of realism will be outlined. This theories of power will be explained and compared in order to create a complete conceptualization of the term power than can be applied to the twentieth first century The realist view of International Relations explains that power is crucial for International Relations because every state is in the pursuit of it. Furthermore the words power and powerful are used very often in the international spectrum, however a definition of itShow MoreRelatedInternational Relations : The Distribution Of Power, Development, And Dependency Within States1070 Words   |  5 PagesInternational relations are completely based off of anarchy and states making interactions between each other. Marxism helps explain a state’s ideals for why they make interactions and for what reasons. It is a theory that states how the world is being ran off of actors wanting total control over the distribution of goods and means of production in a free market defined by the want for profit. These ideals bring out what drives the interactions between states internationally; which in turn helpsRead MoreWhat Is Power And What Forms Can It Shape? International Relations? Essay1672 W ords   |  7 PagesThroughout, political history, power has played a distinguished part in the causes and understanding of how and why state actors fight, cooperate and live with one another. Moreover, power in international society has never been disturbed equally. Therefore, what is power and what forms can it shape to affect international relations? The three political theories of realism, marxism and social constructivism define power in association with the taxonomy principles of concepts. Therefore, it is theRead MoreInformation Is A Source Of Power In International Relations.967 Words   |  4 PagesInformation is a source of power in international relations. Technology is the capability by which states store information. More so now than ever, countries heavily rely on information technology and data storage in order to facilitate the basic functioning of a state. However, when any state places enough importance on a resource of power, that resource becomes a target. An a ttack on informational structures of a state are cyber-attacks or â€Å"the use of computational technologies in cyberspace forRead MoreThe Five International Relations Theories, Realism, Liberalism, And Feminism1241 Words   |  5 PagesThree of the five international relations theories, Realism, Liberalism, and Feminism have very interesting and different positions pertaining to global politics and issues. These theories, although quite different, effect the past present and future of global politics. Realists tend to believe the worst in humanity, that they are inherently selfish, and expect the worst. They are always prepared for war, and will go on the offensive if it means gaining more power and respect. Liberals do not thinkRead MorePower As A General Political Science827 Words   |  4 PagesPower in politics is a central concept, yet a contested one for a multitude of reasons. Chief among them is its contested nature and disagreement among political scientists over the c oncept itself as well as its operationalization. I refrain from further exploring the literature on power as a general political science concept and focus on its aspects related to negotiation. From an international relations perspective, realists for example, emphasize on the materialistic aspect of power; militaryRead MoreBreaking Open Japan, by George Feifer1258 Words   |  6 PagesJapan: Commodore Perry, Lord Abe, and American Imperialism in 1853. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2006. pp. xx, 389 p.: ill., maps; 24 cm. ISBN: 0060884320 (hardcover: alk. paper). Format: Book. Subjects: Japan Foreign relations United States /United States Foreign relations Japan. 2. A statement regarding the author: George Feifer is a native of Roxbury, Connecticut. He has written for a wide array of publications. He is a â€Å"well-known† and veteran author with many successful books. SomeRead MoreInformation Technology And The World Wide Web Creating New Bases For Power And Domination897 Words   |  4 Pages1. Are information technology and the World Wide Web creating new bases for power and domination? There are various levels of domination that are associated with technology. For instance, employers can use this to create businesses opportunities that span the world. Jobs can be outsourced allowing for one nation to profit without paying or supplying their workers with fair wages or safe work environment according to their federal guidelines. They can profit off cheap labor and unethical standardsRead MoreRealism And The Theory Of Realism1939 Words   |  8 Pagesspecifically, the international system, realists focus their ideas about how international relations work based upon the concepts of power and security.† (Realism in International Relations, 2017) The University of Stanford gives an overall idea that â€Å"Realists consider the principal actors in the international arena to be states, which are concerned with their own security, act in pursuit of their own national interests, and struggle for power.† (Political Realism in International Relations (StanfordRea d MoreA Practical Example Of The Indochina War Essay1798 Words   |  8 Pagesdepending upon the stability of the means or ends, it may change if new means become available or if different ends appear to be preferable. Strategist understanding of the tangible and intangible factors and instruments of national power in addition to the interplay relation and weighing them collectively is a key to formulate and execute strategy. In this paper, I will explain these factors, how they are interconnected and how strategists should weigh them in formulating and executing strategy alongRead MoreWhat Caused The 1992-1996 Afghan Civil War : Will History Repeat Itself?3614 Words   |  15 Pageswhy conflict occurs, it fails to prevent the march toward war. This paper explores Kenneth Waltz’s three levels, or â€Å"images’ of conflict. Waltz, the founder of neorealism, established the foundation for one of the two currently accepted international relations schools, the other Neoliberalism. This essay compares Waltz’s theory to other contemporary thinkers, then applies it to the 1992-1996 Afghan Civil War. The paper concludes by noticing the similarities events during the civil wars period

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What Makes A Excellent Mental Health Nurse - 1564 Words

For the purpose of this assignment, these students have chosen the article, â€Å"What makes a excellent mental health nurse? A pragmatic inquiry initiated and conducted by people with lived experience of service use† (2013). For this written critique we have decided to use Polit and Beck’s (2010), ‘Guide to an overall critique of a qualitative research report’ that was presented within the resource, ‘Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice’. This guide was chosen due to our familiarities with this tool, as well as the methodical, linear nature and ease of use. This tool is supported by Boswell and Cannon (n.d), when they show support for Polit and Beck’s (2013) statements, that nurses who engage in critical nursing research reviews make valuable contributions to the improvement of nursing knowledge. In addition, we also choose to utilize Polit and Beck’s framework due to their reputation and signi ficant contributions within the area of nursing research. Therefore, it is believed that this is a suitable tool to use for this assignment when critiquing the title, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion and global issues of the selected article. Title It is our belief that the title of the article, â€Å"what makes an excellent mental health nurse? A pragmatic inquiry initiated and conducted by people with lived experience of service use?† adequately describes the phenomenon and those under investigation. According to Polit and Beck sufficientShow MoreRelatedHistory, Mission And Philosophy Of The Organization1052 Words   |  5 PagesMission and Philosophy of the Organization or Board of Directors: Founded in 1986, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, set its goals to advance the science and education of psychiatric or mental health nursing. It was also established to unify this specialty. Currently there are 40 states or local chapters. This organization promotes the health, wellness and recovery of mental illnesses. Their reason for being developed is the expressed in seven core values of empowerment, inclusivityRead MoreProfessional Practice Paper Example1026 Words   |  5 PagesProfessional Practice Paper The advance practice nurse that I chose to interview is Ms. Tonya King BA, MSW, MHA, and MSN-FNP. Tonya is employed with Kindred Hospice University/ Mental Health Facility. The University Behavioral Center (UCB) has been around since 1989, providing high-quality mental health and substance abuse treatment. The behavioral center provides many program options for children, adolescents, and adults. The main goal of this organization is to enable individuals to enableRead MoreEssay about A Career in Mental Health Nursing1383 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is it that makes choosing a career so difficult? Is it the fact that many people mainly choose a career they live off for the rest of their lives? Or is it just that they are scared of the difficulties and obstacles that will come through their path? Many students choose the usual careers: nursing, doctors, mechanics, or just working at a gas station. It all depends on where and if the student decides to go to college and what degree t hey are looking forward to earning. Becoming a mental healthRead MoreThe Psychology Of Mental Illness1177 Words   |  5 PagesWhen it comes to mental illness, I have the point of view of someone who is training to be a health care professional. During my past clinical experience as a nursing student at the Alberta Hospital Edmonton, I was immersed in an environment filled with individuals who were acutely mentally ill, and two of these individuals were my patients. While â€Å"The Sociology of Mental Illness† is an excellent source of information about mental illness in the context of sociology, based on my experience at AlbertaRead MoreMy Own Engagement Of Professional Relationships And Establish Key Skills That Underpin Lifelong Learning1453 Words   |  6 Pagesunderpin lifelong learning. I will also be looking into how to perform evidence-based practice and reflect on my capabilities and weaknesses identified in my SWOT analysis (see appendix 1) and personal development plan (see appendix 2). As a student nurse, I ascertain that the main principle in nursing is the care of my patients, to treat them as individuals and respect their dignity. I feel that it is fundamental to provide a high standard of practice and care at all times. To be open, honest and toRead MoreMy Life After A Medical Surgical Examination778 Words   |  4 Pagesthe office to address what had occurred. That was the beginning of my emotional healing as I was strongly encouraged to begin counseling and medication management. Seeking psychological help for my mental breakdown allowed me to overcome the biggest challenge I had to prevail over in my life by obtaining by diploma as a Registered Nurse. This significance assumed a depth of meaning to me as over the course of the subsequent dozen years that I have served as a Registered Nurse having the opportunityRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Nursing Essay1028 Words   |  5 Pagesdeveloped interest in nursing the main reason is the superior nursing care to my family member offered by the US hospitals. My personal philosophy is universal provision of health-care despite one’s background. As a nurse, one is responsible to offer professional services in any environment. I defined person, environment, health and nursing. My four personal philosophy concepts include competence, accountability, compassion and caring. Nursing philosophy is important because of practice, educationRead MoreStudy And Career Preparation Of Emergency Nursing Essay1346 Words   |  6 Pages Faculty of Health Assignment Cover Sheet Please complete this sheet and attach to your assignment, ensuring that you print clearly. Student ID: 21600401 Student Name: Samantha Cameron Programme Name: Foundation Health Science Paper Name: Study and Career Preparation Assignment Name: â€Å"Becoming a†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..† Tutor Name: Tiffany Stenger Date Submitted: 10/04/2016 By submitting this assignment I certify thatRead MoreIn Universities Nure Are Taught To Provide Safe Quality1584 Words   |  7 Pagesnursing care to their patients. While providing safe care nurses are also taught to show professionalism and be an advocate for their patients. To be an advocate for their patients and family nurses may take on the role of Nurse Healer. Nurse Healer is defined as a nurse who assist the patients to stay in a state of homeostasis i.e. human body in a state of physical and psychological balance. Dossey and others have observed that â€Å"nurses as healers† use their own energies and interpersonal caringRead MoreTraditional Chinese Medicine ( Tcm )1004 Words   |  5 PagesWe all hear the word caring but what does caring really means? What does caring mean to you? How can care help heal the sick? These are many questions we can ask ourselves and the answers can be different for every person. To the world caring is probably the first description that comes to mind when describing a nurse. Yourdictionary.com describes caring as, â€Å"being someone or something that shows kindness and concern for others† (Yourdictionary.com, 2015). Nurses take care of patients and caring

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Oniomania free essay sample

Shopping Aficionado Gone Wrong There are copious amounts of detrimental factors such as perfectionism, the need to fill an inner void, and the impulsive pressure to seek excitement that lead up to one of the most common disorders, oniomania. The word onios means for sale in Greek, while mania means insanity. Oniomania is the psychiatric term for shopaholism. Other words for this term include compulsive shopping or buying and shopping addiction. Most causes for compulsive shopping are psychological damages and should be treated immediately. Avoiding the issue can cause difficulties with finances and relationships. Shopping addicts sometimes have a hard time to stop spending. There are many penalties for compulsive buying, which usually continue long after a binge. Compusive buying can be devastating to relationships, marriages, Jobs, family, and friends. Other problems can incorporate crumbling credit history, robbery, bankruptcy, and much more. These negative effects usually worsen a person oniomania due to the fact that they are already struggling from emotional issues. We will write a custom essay sample on Oniomania or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One of the most common reasons for why people suffer from shopaholism is perfectionism. Perfectionism is the belief of trying to achieve the best. Even though this might not sound destructive, there are always unhealthy forms of perfectionism. Some people struggle with insecurities, which triggers them to shop and try to be that so called perfect image that they see in their mind. These types of people also have the desire to be approved by society. Others who struggle with this issue usually have overly high expectations of themselves, which can sometimes lead to anxiety. For example, if a Vanessas friend has shoes that are over $200, Vanessa may feel the need to buy something for the same amount or more so she doesnt feel like a disappointment. For example, if a Vanessas friend has shoes that are over $200, Vanessa may feel the need to buy something for the same amount or more so she doesnt feel like a disappointment. Characteristics of unhealthy perfectionism include frequently setting goals and not accomplishing them, regularly competing to be the best in order to not feel like a letdown, having a mindset of believing that making mistakes can be calamitous, and thinking that there arent enough strategies to be successful. These types of thoughts and actions can lead up to compulsive buying. Shopping addicts also struggle with the feeling of emptiness. Having an inner void is nother reason people turn to compulsive buying. Death, corrupt relationships, and awful childhoods can cause one to feel incomplete. When Michael was younger, his parents never bought him anything. They were extremely malicious and uncaring. Therefore this affected Michael as and adult and instigated his shopping addiction. The fact that Michael wasnt loved and treated with compassion in his younger days, prompted him to find happiness through spending abundant amounts of money on things he doesnt even need. The addict obtains to make purchases to help them cope with life, and strong anxiety is felt in the deficiency of their addictive ctivity. Death has the same effect on people as well. Losing someone to death is like losing something you have had for years. Once you lose someone, its hard to replace tnem ana takes wee Ks turnlng to montns ana proDaDly even years to get over. Havlng a hole in your heart is a psychological issue and materialistic things wont improve this situation. Everyone wants excitement in life, often some cant even handle a single minute of negative feelings. All humans endure negative vibes at some point in their life. But compulsive buyers can stand it. If a shopping addict is suffering from nxiety, boredom, stress, or if theyre miserable, they usually find an opportunity to make purchases. Shopping fanatics can undergo a high or euphoric feeling from neurological chemicals when they buy things. The momentary spike in dopamine and other neurotransmitters trigger the brain to view shopping as a satisfying experience and emphasizes recurrence of this hobby. Compulsive buyers often forget that the joy they are feeling is only temporary and negative vibes always come back. These people do not understand the fact that life can have flaws as well. Not everything has to be delightful and faultless. Everyone has to experience both good and bad things in life. There are always different ways to exert the negative energy out of you besides spending money. Individuals can always try to find another hobby. One can also have a trusted friend who will watch over what is bought and when purchases are made so people dont over spend or buy unnecessary things out of impulse. Jennifer loves a fast life with nothing but good vibes. She despises the feeling of negativity around her or feeling bored. Jennifers first choice was to go out and splurge her savings, which isnt healthy at all. She should take a friend with her Just n case to watch over what she is spending. If Jennifer happens to spend all her money, she would be at risk of creating more problems such as bankruptcy, relationship problem and much more. Several thing need to be taken into consideration when it comes to compulsive buying. Societal circumstances also have an imperative role in oniomania, the rise of purchaser urbanity contributes to the view of compulsive purchasing as a particularly modern addiction. Easily obtainable credit cards allow spontaneous spending outside someones incomes, and some would imply that the obsessive consumer should get rid of credit cards all together. Online spending also enables oniomania, with online auction addiction, used to escape feelings of depression or guilt, becoming an identifiable setback. In conclusion, there are much more causes of an addiction to shopping than one could imagine. Compulsive shopping is usually caused by psychological problems. Shopping addicts undergo issues such as the pressure to be perfect, the need to fill an inner void, and the lack of excitement. All three of these aspects result in oniomania. People who suffer form oniomania should never lose hope. There are always different strategies that someone can try to avoid temptations. It is always ital to speak to a professional about these problems to be treated.

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost

It is certainly evident that life and experience occurs, and eliminates or changes the quality of human innocence. Of course, this is perfectly normal. However, frequently those undergoing such a process, can often feel suffering, loss, and perhaps confusion. This is definitely a part of human evolution. Within our text, the reading of the three pieces by Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost, all serve to illustrate this phenomenon.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More â€Å"Araby† is a coming of age tale of a young Irish Catholic boy, living in early twentieth century Dublin. Clearly, at the start of the story, the young man is an idealist. Author James Joyce describes his protagonist whose disappointments prompt him to unexpected reaction. â€Å"My eyes were often full of tears (I could not tell why) and at times a flood from my hear t seemed to pour itself out into my bosom.† (Joyce) As the story is narrated by the boy now grown, the loss of innocence through remembered experience is doubly poignant and ironic. Looking back, the narrator speaks of himself as growing up in one of the worst parts of a then very blighted city. Tantamount here also is the boy’s feeling that his religion is empty, ritualistic, with no real and true care for his Maker and the rest of humanity. However, when the boy next falls in love with the sister of a friend, â€Å"Mangan†, he briefly experiences a form of renewal. Nevertheless, he is doomed to be disappointed as his view of love is one based on piety and unrealistic romance. He does not get the girl. He mourns thus, â€Å"Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derived by vanity, (Joyce ) Finally, the last vestiges of his innocence are purged through his actual experience of visiting the Arabian bazaar and realizing that it is very d ifferent from what he’d formerly perceived. Dark, sinister, seductive, and highly commercialized, Araby epitomizes for the narrator, the real and experienced state of the world. Next, in Jamaica Kincaid’s one-sentence short story entitled â€Å"Girl†, the loss of innocence through experience is delivered to the daughter by her mother, who provides her with a litany of advice. Although the mother’s speech to her daughter seems motivated by love and she provides her child with information she believes the girl will need in order to survive as a women in the Western Caribbean world, it is nonetheless a loss of innocence gained via the mother’s diatribe. Although the mother gives the girl what she believes to be helpful information on all from chores to life and love, she displays a strong lack of confidence in the child.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Lea rn More The parent starts with telling her offspring, she should â€Å"Wash the white clothes on Monday and put them on the stone heap; wash the color clothes on Tuesday and put them on the clothesline to dry; don’t walk barehead in the hot sun.† (Kincaid ) Mother then proceeds to slight the girl’s very character by telling her, â€Å"on Sundays try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are bent on becoming.† (Kincaid ) The young lady appears to respond minimally, both in her defense and to acquire additional information. The daughter claims, â€Å"but I don’t sing benna on Sundays at all and never in Sunday school.† Therefore, at the end of the mother’s lengthy statement, the youngster is presumed to have left behind her childhood, and prepared to enter the adult world. Finally, prominent twentieth century American poet Robert Frost touches on innocence, experience, and choice in his verse, â€Å"The Road Not Taken†. He claimed that the poem was originally written when he and a close friend came upon two similar paths in the woods, and were in a quandary as to which way to go. The poem appears to promote the wish that they could explore both paths and would possibly do so, if they could, but that reality would probably not permit that series of events. Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. (Frost 149) Lastly, the final point made by Frost is that his choice dictates his loss of innocence and subsequent reality. He speaks of a later time in which he will recall:Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I — I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. (Frost 149) Of course, it isnà ¢â‚¬â„¢t clear what kind of difference occurred, and whether or not, it was either positive or negative, but just experienced. Therefore, the choice precluded another experience, a type of loss. Works Cited Abcarian, Richard, Samuel Cohen and Marvin Klotz, eds. Literature: The Human Experience. Bedford Saint Martin’s 10th edition This essay on Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost was written and submitted by user SallyFloyd to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Provisions of Convention on the Rights of the Essays

The Provisions of Convention on the Rights of the Essays The Provisions of Convention on the Rights of the Child. The International programme on Elimination of Child Labour was ILO's response to provide direct assistance to countries to tackle child labour and give teeth to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child made effective in 1989. Today it has 30 funders and 86 programme countries ILO in its Report. "The end of child labour; within reach" released in 2006 says, in 2004 there were 218 million children trapped in child labour of whom 126 million were in hazardous work. However the number of child labourers globally fell by 11% over the last four years, while that of children in hazardous work decreased by 26%. (www.ilo.org/declaration) IPEC the campaign instrument against child labour conducted by ILO commenced in 1992 and has made several break throughs in advocacy; tackling the worst forms of child labour; developing a learning culture and mainstreaming child labour within the decent work agenda. ILO is also aware of future challenges. Child labour elimination may be mainstreamed into key development and Human Rights frame works like Millennium Development Goals and poverty reduction strategies. Child labor first emerged as a major public policy issue with the impact of the industrial revolution. The first wave of industries at countries offered several packages of intervention to overcome presence of child labour like advocacy campaigns; public inquiries; minimum age legislation; education provision for working children. These have been expanded, replicated by many developing countries ILO has expanded its efforts through IPEC programme in some 90 countries. It has been observed that child labour declines with increase in GDP growth; improved school attendance; reduction of absolute poverty; The elimination of child labour is linked with provision of compulsory, free and accessible education. Without educational opportunities it is likely that children will enter the labour market and take on dangerous and exploitative jobs. Though the Dakar forum of 185 countries resolved to provide all children of primary age free schooling of quality by year 2015 and eliminate gender disparities by year 2005 much remains to be achieved. Although concept of education for all has not taken off the ground at an international scale, efforts are made with community groups, parents, employers, and government officials to remove children from work and enroll them in school. An example is efforts of an NGO(MV foundation) made in India in state of Andrah Pradesh. It enabled 150,000 to be enrolled and retained in schools and more than 4,000 boned labourers released and of 500 villages under project 168are free of child labour. These results were achieved through awareness raising and demand for education of children; support Teachers through special training; support parents to provide alternatives to labour of child withdrawn; provide clearing schools to prepare children for formal education. (source: Child Labour a Global concern, www.schoolsthebestplacetowork.org) UNICEF has been advocating education as a preventive strategy against child labour (www.unicef.org/evalvatebase/file) child labour evaluate rights 27 Feb 2004 National International comments PDF. Some ILO actions against child labour since 2002. SCREAM stop child labour (sup poring children's Rights) through education the arts and the medias is a community based education and social mobilization programme that commenced in 2002 it is directed to children and youth in some situations programme works with world Scout Movement, in Arab States it works with UNESCO (p 29,30) World Day Against Child Labour initiated in June 2002 is another tool. Annually it has focused on particular issues of relevance like child domestic labour, trafficking, elimination of child labour in mining and quarrying . ILO Red Card to child labour has expanded campaign to sports and removal of children from abusive sports good production. There have been efforts to improve knowledge base on child labour. This is linked to research data collection and field operations and surveys. (P46) Links have been observed between child labour and globalization. "Globalization can help reduce child labour in countries where there is a relatively largepool of workers with at least a basic education complemented with active social policies." A few studies have also shown that "child labour appears to diminish as foreign direct investment increases"(pg 19). Special country projects directed at eliminating child labour have been identified. The CSR Movement (corporate social responsibility) encourages voluntary codes of conduct in industries where child labour may prevail like garments, sports goods, footwear, toys. Employer organizations like the Federation of Uganda Employers, have been actively involved in preventing employment of child labour in agricultural sector. The Employers Organization in Yunan Province, China (p 70) has taken hand the arrest of trafficking women and children. Trade Unions have joined hands against child labour in Andhara Pradesh (p72) aimed

Friday, February 21, 2020

IMPACT OF INTEREST RATES ON THE HOUSEING MARKET Essay

IMPACT OF INTEREST RATES ON THE HOUSEING MARKET - Essay Example In terms of the 15 and 30 year mortgage rates since 2001, the rates have remained close to the interest rates set by the Feds. The connection between the two is certainly obvious therefore an understanding of the federal rate is important to obtain an understanding of the housing market. The federal rate is the rate of interest at which depository institutes loan out their holdings in the Federal Reserve to other depository institutes on an overnight basis (Arnold, 2005). This rate is different from the discount rate which the Federal Reserve uses to calculate loan payments for financial institutions. The federal rate has many important implications for the economy of the country and changes in this rate would affect everything from mortgage rates to the stock market. It also has a significant impact on economic growth depending on several factors in the monetary policy being followed by the country. Fundamentally, the Federal Reserve System operates to ensure that all American banks keep a certain level of reserves which are normally a percentage of the value of the bank’s demand accounts (Arnold, 2005). Since this is a regulatory requirement, banks may borrow money from each other to maintain such a level of reserves and the interest rate paid between banks would be the Federal Rate. Through these means, the Federal Reserve has considerable power over the supply and demand for balances of Reserve Banks. The monetary experts at the Federal Reserve are supposed to ensure that the rate is set at such a level that it will create economic growth and stability in the economy. However, the economic demands have to be balanced with the political and social realties which may influence how and at what exact level the rate is set (Wikipedia, 2006). The Federal Reserve therefore adjusts the rate periodically to keep the economy running smoothly. However, even a

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Recommendations to the Cyber Czar Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Recommendations to the Cyber Czar - Assignment Example Countries work with special strategies to facilitate cyberspace security. This is aimed at protecting a national territory from cyber space malicious attacks. Implementing the security system is a joint comparison of Homeland Security and the National Strategy. The policies are set to engage the global population to engage in implementing security levels in the cyberspace. This comes as an initiative of every country to implement security details in the cyberspace they own, operate and control. Securing the cyberspace involves difficult strategic challenges which require focus and coordination from the entire society. This comes as a combined force from the local and state governments and the private sector (Arias, 2010). Objectives set to meet the recommendations The strategy to secure the cyberspace comes with a combination of prioritizing and organizing efforts. This offers departmental heads in government with directions in curbing malicious attacks on the cyberspace. The strateg y aims at identifying the local and state governments, private organization and individuals who can take place in improving cyber security. The highlight of the strategy is in the merging of private and public engagement. Improving cyber security comes with everyone working as one to secure the cyberspace. ... Consistence within the National Strategy by the Homeland Security works with set objectives to ensure that the set strategy in securing cybercrime works with the set recommendations (Briggs & Burke, 2009). The main objectives are to: 1. Provide the citizens with security from cyber-attacks on critical infrastructures 2. Reduce the possibility of individuals to get cyber attacks 3. Implement a damage control and recovery plan from the cyber attacks The threat and vulnerability portrayed by the cyberspace The economy and the security system depend on information technology. Major applications that run at the core depend on the internet. The internet was originally built to facilitate research among scientists. Abusing the internet network was not part of the plan. Today the internet connects people through computer networks exposing ISP’s, Software Manufacturers, End Users and Operating System producers to malicious attacks. Computer networks connect different objects such as st ock markets, electrical transformers and trains. A malicious attack that compromises the functioning of such objects puts the end user at a disadvantage. Cyber Czar can spread a spectrum of malicious attacks against critical information. The main concern is organized attacks that cause disruption of the National critical infrastructure, national security and the economy. Attackers require sophistication to carry out such attacks but this does not mean that countries can relax on setting security measures. Nations face situations where hackers have identified loopholes where they can maximize on in doing their fraudulent activities (Purdy, 2011). Proper analysis of the cyber threats needs a long term analysis of the

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech Direct and Indirect Speech Cartoon Strip Eureka Phonica Eureka Phonica Eureka Do you know that what has been said can be stated in two ways direct speech and indirect speech? Direct speech means the exact words that have been spoken. Indirect speech means what is said is stated in our own words, so it differs somewhat from what was actually said. When the speech changes from direct to indirect, the tense, person and adverb may change. Indirect speech is presented in the form of an assertive sentence. Four kinds of sentences are presented in direct speech assertive, interrogative, commands and requests and exclamatory. The reporting verbs also change, depending on the kind of sentence. Launch Pad In this chapter, we shall learn how to interchange direct and indirect speech Taking Off Note to Teacher As direct and indirect speech has already been taught prepare flash cards with a sentence in direct speech on one side and the same sentence in indirect speech on the other side. Example : 1) Baiju said, I am going home. 2) Baiju said that he was going out. Divide the class into pairs and provide 2 flash cards to each group. Student A will read out the sentence in direct speech to student B. Student B will change the speech. Student A will turn the card over and check whether the sentence is correct. If it is correct, Student B will score one point. Each pair can exchange their cards with other pairs and score more points. Tell them that we can state what has been said in two ways direct speech and indirect speech. We can state what people have said in two ways. We can state the exact words that were spoken. This is known as direct speech Example : Happy birthday, Ronita ! said the children. Why do you wish to consult me? asked the lawyer. Give me an explanation right now, demanded her father. I will have to set out tomorrow, said Marco Polo. Or We can state what was said in our own words. This is known as indirect speech or reported speech. Example: The children greeted Ronita on her birthday. The lawyer wanted to know why I wished to consult him. Her father demanded an explanation right then. Marco Polo said that he would have to set out the next day. Direct Speech Points to Note The exact words of the speaker are placed within double inverted commas. A comma is placed immediately before the quoted words. Depending on the kind of sentence the end mark is a full stop, a question mark or a mark of exclamation. The first word within quotation marks begins with a capital letter. Assertive Sentences Read the following sentences: Ram said, I am reading this book. Ram said that he was reading that book. Changes take place in the person ( I changes to he), tense (am reading changes to was reading) and adverb (this changes to that) when the speech changes from direct to indirect. said to changes to told. Example: He said to his sister, You can buy the gift. He told his sister that she could buy the gift. If a universal truth is stated in direct speech, the tense does not change in reported speech. Example: She said, Honey is sweet. She said that honey is sweet. If the reporting verb is in the present tense in indirect speech, the reported speech is also in the present tense. Example: He says, The old house seems to be haunted. He says that the old house seems to be haunted. If the verb in direct speech is in the simple past tense, the verb in reported speech also remains in the simple past tense. Example: She said, I went home. She said that she went home. If the verb in direct speech is in the past tense and the time of action is mentioned, the verb changes to past perfect tense in reported speech. Example: She said, I went home at midnight. She said that she had gone home at midnight. Changes in adverbs are as follows: Direct speech Indirect speech now then here there this that these those ago before thus so today that day yesterday the day before/ the previous day tomorrow the next/ following day tonight that night last week the previous week/ the week before here there next week the following week Info Orbit When an assertive sentence changes from direct to indirect there are changes in the person, tense and adverb. The comma after said is replaced with that. said to changes to told. If a universal truth is stated in reported speech the tense does not change If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense in reported speech does not change. If the past tense is used in the reported speech in direct speech, it will remain unchanged in indirect speech. If the past tense is used in reported speech in direct speech and the time of the action is mentioned, the simple past tense will change to past perfect tense Practice Pulsars I. Change from direct to indirect speech: There is no need to leave tonight, she said to her friend. He said, The sun is shining brightly. She said to her father, I know you are angry with me.† The scientist said, They will conduct experiments in this laboratory. The princess said to the minister, We have to reach a decision tomorrow. The teacher said to the class, All of you are aware that the earth moves round the sun. Every morning my father says, It is a new day and I am thankful to be alive. Mother said , Today may be a very hot day . He said to me, I am reminding you that time and tide wait for none. The coach said, At this time, next week, the result of the match will be declared. II. Change from indirect to direct The captain told his men that they must not underestimate the enemy. Taruna said that she had no idea how the accident had taken place the previous evening. Usri told the children that all that glitters is not gold. Ginny said that long, long ago there was a continent called Atlantis. Raman said that the following day he would sit down with them and make a plan. The milkman told the lady that the milk was watery as the cow had drunk a lot of water that morning. She says that fifteen minutes of meditation every morning keeps her calm for the rest of the day. Mrs Das told her neighbour that she had gone to Kolkata two years before. Vinita said that those photographs were more precious than gold to her. Old Mrs Vincent was of the opinion that a house was better than a flat. Interrogative sentences When questions are changed to reported speech, the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. Example: Karan said, When will the match begin? Karan asked when the match would begin. The reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. Example: Savita said, Where is Peter? Savita asked where Peter was. or Savita inquired where Peter was. Damien said to Rahul, Are you absolutely sure? Damien wanted to know if Rahul was absolutely sure. or Damien inquired of Rahul if he was absolutely sure. Flash tip :1. said changes to asked or inquired. said to changes to asked or inquired of. 2. enquired/ enquired of may be used instead of inquired/inquired of. If the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. Example: Rama said, Can I use that pen? Rama asked if she could use that pen. If the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. Example: Rama said, When did this happen? Rama asked when it happened. There are changes in the person, tense and adverbs just like in the assertive sentences. Info Orbit When questions are changed to reported speech, the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. The reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. If the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. If the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. Practice Pulsar III. Change the speech Damini said, Can you explain the sum now? Rajiv asked Poonam, What are these stacks of paper for? Have you enjoyed yourselves today? said the instructor. Minu inquired, Tom, why are you packing your bag? The children said, Will you take us to the zoo next week? He said, How much further do we have to travel? She asked whether they were ready to go for a walk that evening. Shyam asked me why I was laughing so much. Fanny wanted to know who lived in the old house on the hill. The headman asked if anyone had worked for that company a year back. The detective enquired of the witness if he had seen the man in the photograph. Akhilesh wished to know how many of his classmates would go for a picnic. Commands and Requests Read the given sentences: 1.She said, Please tie your seat belt. She requested me to tie my seatbelt. 2. She said, Buy the necessities before the sun sets. She ordered him to buy the necessities before the sun set. 3. She said, Let us organise a party. She suggested that they should organise a party. The reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. The main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. tie in sentence 1 changes to to tie, and buy in sentence 2 changes to to buy. Even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. Example : He said, Please sit down. He requested her to sit down. When the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. In sentence 3 organise changes to should organise. Info Orbit The reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. The main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. Even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. When the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. Practice Pulsar IV. Change the speech: Keep the vase on the table, Sima, she said. Make sure that you have enough water, the guide said. Please do not make so much noise, said the official to the visitors. Let us clean the compound, said the monitor. Switch off the fans and lights before you leave, he said. Kindly contribute generously, said the child at the door. She ordered the children to cross the road cautiously. They requested us to wait for a few hours before lodging a complaint. The man told us to take a right turn to reach the bakery. We suggested to the old people that they should visit the orphanage once a week. The officer ordered the men to take up their positions. He requested her to take off her shoes outside the temple. Exclamations and Exclamatory Sentences Read the given sentences: He said, Alas! I have lost everything. He exclaimed in sorrow that he had lost everything. The reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. The emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. So Alas! is replaced by exclaimed in sorrow. She said, How hot the day is! She exclaimed that the day was very hot. When an exclamatory sentence in direct speech begins with How or What, it is usually replaced with very in reported speech. Info Orbit The reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. The emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. Practice Pulsar V. Change the speech He said, Hurrah! I have won the lottery. She said, What a pretty little girl you are! The lady said, What a fool I have been! He said, Oh! This is the best car I have seen. He said, O God! Forgive me for what I have done. The teacher congratulated him, saying that he had done very well. Wendy exclaimed that the bed was very comfortable. Madan exclaimed in joy that he was free at last. The jackal exclaimed that the crow had a very sweet voice. Ms Parekh exclaimed in grief that her brother was responsible for his own downfall. Ellen exclaimed that the weather was very chilly. Brendan exclaimed that it was a great pity that they had missed the show. Word Zoomer Reported Speech : Indirect speech is also known as reported speech. When direct speech changes to reported speech usually the first and second person change to the third person, the present tense changes to the past tense and the adverbs showing nearness in time and position are replaced by adverbs that show distance in time and position. Direct Speech : The words that are actually said. These are placed within quotation marks. Reporting verb : The verb that introduces direct speech or reported speech. For e.g. said, exclaimed, asked, whispered, requested and commanded. Touch Down When assertive sentences in direct speech are changed to indirect speech there are changes in the person, tense and adverb. the comma after said is replaced with that. said to changes to told. if a universal truth is stated in reported speech the tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense in reported speech does not change. if the past tense is used in the reported speech in direct speech, it will remain unchanged in indirect speech. if the past tense is used in reported speech in direct speech and the time of the action is mentioned, the simple past tense will change to past perfect tense When interrogative sentences in direct speech are changed to indirect speech the word order becomes the same as that of an assertive sentence. the reporting verb in reported speech is asked, inquired or inquired of, wanted to know etc. if the question can be answered with yes or no, if or whether follows the reporting verb. if the question cannot be answered with yes or no, the reporting verb is followed by question words like when, what, which, where and how. When requests and commands in direct speech are changed to indirect speech the reporting verb is requested, told, asked, suggested etc. the main verb in direct speech changes to an infinitive in indirect speech. even when the person who is being addressed is not mentioned in direct speech, we have to mention the person in indirect speech. when the direct speech begins with let, the reporting verb changes to suggested and the main verb is preceded by should in reported speech. When exclamations and exclamatory sentences are changed to indirect speech the reporting verb said in direct speech changes to exclaimed in reported speech. the emotion that is expressed by the exclamation in direct speech is stated in reported speech. Flash tip : The shortest letters are said to have been exchanged between Victor Hugo and his publisher. When Les Miserables was released Victor Hugo wanted to know if it was well-received or not, so he sent a letter to his publisher with only ? written on it. The publishers response also consisted of a single punctuation mark ! Star Exercise I. Each of the following sentences contains an error. Correct the sentences. Rani said to Praveen that she would go over to his house that day. Brinda said that it was almost ten o clock now. She asked that if the bakers boy had delivered the bread. Sandeep said that the earth was round. Mohan said, Sandeep you are absolutely right. Deepa said, How cute the puppies look. Anand said You can leave the room now. Do not look so sad, said my friend. II. Read the dialogue given below and fill in the blanks: Akram Nibha Akram Nibha Akram Nibha Why are you looking so worried? My father has been transferred to a new place. Dont you want to go with him? I do, but I shall miss all my friends. What a lucky girl you are ! You will be seeing a new place and making new friends. I am feeling much better. Thank you. Akram asked Nibha (1) .. Nibha replied that her father (2).. Akram then inquired if (3) . with him. Nibha said that she did, but (4) Akram exclaimed that (5) . because she would be seeing (6) Nibha thanked him because (7) .. Comet Exercise Choose the correct alternative Shalini and Malini were twins. One day, while taking a walk Shalini said, I dont think (1. we have taken the right path / we had taking the right path/ we had taken the right path). Malini looked around and found nothing wrong. Why had Shalini made such a comment? She felt that her sister (2. has made a mistake /had made a mistake /is making a mistake.) Shalini pointed to a tree. (3.What do you have to say about it? / What did she have to say about it?/ What did you have to say about it? ) Malini (4.asked/exclaimed/ told) that it was (5. a very huge tree/ very huge trees/ a huge tree). Shalini sighed, You lack observation powers. We walk here every day. Have you seen it before? Malini answered, No, I have not. ( 6.I think we took a wrong turning / I am thinking we took a wrong turning/ I have thought we took a wrong turning) near the bazaar. Shalini (7.asked/ requested/ exclaimed) an old man (8. if he can help them / if he could help them / whether he could helps them). The old man guided them back and (9. advised/ commanded/ requested) them to be careful in future. Shalini and Malini assured him that (10. yes/ they would be more careful/ they will be more careful).

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Ethics of Cloning Essay -- Genetics Biology Genes Essays Papers

Imagine a world where everyone looked like you and was related to you as a sibling, cousin, or any form of relation, wouldn’t that be freaky? Although cloning is not an important issue presently, it could potentially replace sexual reproduction as our method of producing children. Cloning is a dangerous possibility because it could lead to an over-emphasis on the importance of the genotype, no guaranteed live births, and present risks to both the cloned child and surrogate mother. It also violates the biological parent-child relationship and can cause the destruction of the normal structure of a family. The cloning of the deceased is another problem with cloning because it displays the inability of the parents to accept the child’s death and does not ensure a successful procedure. Along with the risks, there are benefits to Human Reproductive Cloning. It allows couples who cannot have a baby otherwise to enjoy parenthood and have a child who is directly related to them. It also limits the risk of transmitting genetic diseases to the cloned child and the risk of genetic defects in the cloned child. Although the government has banned Human Reproductive Cloning, the issue will eventually come to the surface and force us to consider the 1st commandment of God, all men are equal in the eyes of god, but does this also include clones? That is the question that we must answer in the near future in order to resolve a controversy that has plagued us for many years. In the world today, issues such as Global Warming and the War in Iraq take the front cover on any newspaper, but in the world tomorrow, the concept of cloning will become an ever-more pressing issue. How do you define the term cloning? Well, in the words of Jac... ...e pressing issue that will question our morals, ethics, and view on human dignity. As a society, we must come to a decision regarding Human Cloning and stand by it, whether it is the right decision or not. Our actions will have a profound impact on the methods of reproduction used by future generations. Works Cited Page Cibelli, Jose, et al. Principles of Cloning. San Diego: Academic Press (AP), 2002. Brannigan, C. Michael. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning. New York: Seven Bridges Press, Chatham House Publishers, 2001. "Arguments for "Reproductive Cloning." The Presidents Council on Bioethics. Vers. 3a. 7/12/07. http://bioethicsprint.bioethics.gov/background/workpaper3a.html â€Å"Arguments against â€Å"Reproductive Cloning.† The Presidents Council on Bioethics. Vers. 3b. 7/12/07. http://www.bioethics.gov/background/workpaper3b.html

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Did the Arabs Injustice Huntington?

Samuel Huntington is the author of the article entitled â€Å"The Clash of Civilizations? † which discusses or narrates concepts that explicates world politics. According to Huntington, international conflicts that concerns politics may be justified by rational arguments or issues that are left unresolved. However, Huntington reiterates that these particular conflicts are founded on underlying issues or matters that naturally lead to political conflicts – that is culture.According to Huntington, culture is threatening to divide nations instead of leading the way to support unity and oneness in handling international problems or issues, since culture is the primary source of irreconcilable differences and conflicts that do not provide opportunities for nations to meet in middle ground. As a means of representing concrete structures of culture, Huntingon has labeled seven civilizations being the Confucian, Hindu, Islamic, Japanese, Latin American, Slavic-Orthodox, and Wes tern. One may notice that Huntington left out the African populace as one of the identified civilizations.This is because Huntington was unsure about the state of the African nation, that is, whether it meets the standards and guidelines of development that is attributed to a mindful and responsive civilization. The classification of Huntington of the world population into civilizations was primary influenced by prominent religious affiliations that are a major identifier of culture. Personally, I would have to agree with Huntington on this matter, since I sincerely believe that cultural affiliations among individuals are largely influenced by the religious beliefs that they share.Huntington believes that the strong ties of individuals to their culture and religion which grants them a sense of self or identity as an individual and as a nation, is difficult to break apart when it comes to promoting rational politics and relations that necessitates the disregard of personal worldviews as directed by a civilization’s culture. However, Huntington’s establishment of seven civilizations has also been a source of contradicting information that he has presented in his article since the classification of civilizations is complicated and inconsistent.Moreover, Huntington mentioned that differences between people, as supported by his theory of the seven civilizations in the world, do not necessarily mean that there will be conflict, and conflict does not necessarily mean that it will lead to violence. However, the gist of Huntington’s article clearly displays how differences, particularly in culture and religion, is the primary cause of conflict and violence around the world as he studied the Cold War and the succeeding world events after it.These contradicting thoughts that Huntington shared in his work, he also contradicted by stating how culture and religion are two important factors in promoting unity. In this case, Huntington mentioned how non-A rab Muslims were able to unite as one despite differences of culture and religion and through shared culture and religion. Upon the establishment of the seven civilizations, Huntington continued to discuss various historical evidences that support his claim. This particular issue led to the discussion of the politics between the Arabs and the West which raised violent reactions from the former.Huntington wrote that at present time, the major players in world politics are the West and the Arab nation. Despite internal clashes between different factions or minority groups within the Arab nations, Huntington believes that in the end, it will still find a way to reconcile differences among them and be counter-reactive to the West. Although the statements of Huntington caused a stir within the Arab nation, I believe that Huntington was not pressing violent, hateful, derogatory, or discriminatory issues against the Arab nation.Huntington magnified his discussion on the issue between the A rabs and the West since it is the current international issue or problem – the power struggle between the two civilizations which people often hear in the news. Although majority of Huntington’s arguments were based on theories, I believe that everything he said were reflective of the current situations, straying away from the assumption that he wrote the article to present his prejudiced or biased sentiments against the Arab nation.His article was based on decades of historical evidences that created an obvious pattern relaying motivations of war in the past, which was further supported by the 9/11 incident that led to the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York. Huntington was simply observant and articulates enough to present a logical explanation of countless conflicts between nations, which may or may not have some truth to it. Frankly, I believe that major truths are embedded within theories, especially those that lend themselves to conspiratorial issues.Setti ng my personal opinions aside, Huntington’s criticisms of other civilization validates the fact that he was not anti-Arab, but simple a man who wanted to illustrate world politics under a cultural context. Huntington criticized the immorality and hypocrisy of the West, stating how the Western civilization has achieved its superiority over other civilizations due to its mindful submission to organized violence in order to achieve its goals and objectives. Moreover, Huntington reiterates that the West does not promote universalism but rather act for world domination.Moreover, Huntington believes that Christian views which originated from the West could not have influenced numerous people around the world if Christians had not come into contact with individuals from the East. Huntington then criticized Western Christianity; and then continued to criticize Western Europe. According to Huntington, some of the concepts of politics and economics claimed by the Western Civilization, particularly Western Europe, did not actually originate from it but from non-Western civilizations in other parts of the world.In general, Huntington’s article was a seemingly balanced representation of his theories on how international conflicts, then and now, were products of cultural and religious differences. The criticisms he posed were not one-sided, attacking the Middle East or the West, or any other civilization for that matter, solely. In fact, Huntington’s theories were open discussions and arguments about the Arab and Western perspectives. Huntington acknowledged how the West is trying to portray a super power estate that works to promote unity, solidarity, democracy, diplomacy, peace, and such.This, he identified as the Western perspective. However, Huntington argued that the West’s interests are politically motivated, geared toward staying in power and obtaining control of the majority populations. On one hand, Huntington discussed how the Arab popu lations are trying to overthrow the influence of the West in their land, moving them to resort to threats and violence toward non-Arab and Western nations. For Huntington, the Arab perspective is just patterned after the â€Å"us-versus-them† mentality.

Friday, January 3, 2020

History of the Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution broke out in 1910 when the decades-old rule of President Porfirio Dà ­az was challenged by Francisco I. Madero, a reformist writer and politician. When Dà ­az refused to allow clean elections, Maderos calls for revolution were answered by Emiliano Zapata in the south, and Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa in the north. Dà ­az was deposed in 1911, but the revolution was just beginning. By the time it was over, millions had died as rival politicians and warlords fought each other over the cities and regions of Mexico. By 1920, the chickpea farmer and revolutionary general Alvaro Obregà ³n had risen to the presidency, primarily by outliving his main rivals. Most historians believe this event marks the end of the revolution, although the violence continued well into the 1920s. The Porfiriato Porfirio Dà ­az led Mexico as president from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911. He was an acknowledged but unofficial ruler from 1880 to 1884 as well. His time in power is referred to as the Porfiriato. During those decades, Mexico modernized, building mines, plantations, telegraph lines, and railroads, which brought great wealth to the nation. It came, however, at the cost of repression and grinding debt peonage for the lower classes. Dà ­azs close circle of friends benefited greatly, and most of Mexicos vast wealth remained in the hands of a few families. Dà ­az ruthlessly clung to power for decades,  but after the turn of the century, his grip on the nation started to slip. The people were unhappy: An economic recession caused many to lose their jobs and people began calling for change. Dà ­az promised free elections in 1910. Dà ­az and Madero Dà ­az expected to win easily and legally and was therefore shocked when it became evident that his opponent, Francisco I. Madero, was likely to win. Madero, a reformist writer who came from a wealthy family, was an unlikely revolutionary. He was short and skinny, with a high-pitched voice that became quite shrill when he was excited. A teetotaler and vegetarian, he claimed to be able to speak to ghosts and spirits, including his dead brother and Benito Juà ¡rez. Madero didnt have any real plan for Mexico after Dà ­az; he simply felt that someone else should rule after decades of Don Porfirio. Dà ­az fixed the elections, arresting Madero on false charges of plotting armed insurrection. Madero was bailed out of jail by his father and went to San Antonio, Texas, where he watched Dà ­az easily win re-election. Convinced that there was no other way to get Dà ­az to step down, Madero called for an armed rebellion; ironically, that was the same charge that had been trumped-up against him. According to Maderos Plan of San Luis Potosi, the insurrection would begin on November 20. Orozco, Villa, and Zapata In the southern state of Morelos, Maderos call was answered by peasant leader Emiliano Zapata, who hoped a revolution would lead to land reform. In the north, muleteer Pascual Orozco and bandit chieftain Pancho Villa also took up arms. All three rallied thousands of men to their rebel armies. In the south, Zapata attacked large ranches called haciendas, giving back land that had been illegally and systematically stolen from peasant villages by Dà ­azs cronies. In the north, Villas and Orozcos massive armies attacked federal garrisons wherever they found them, building up impressive arsenals and attracting thousands of new recruits. Villa truly believed in reform; he wanted to see a new, less crooked Mexico. Orozco was more of an opportunist who saw a chance to get in on the ground floor of a movement he was certain would succeed and secure a position of power for himself (such as state governor) with the new regime. Orozco and Villa had great success against the federal forces and in February 1911, Madero returned and joined them in the north. As the three generals closed in on the capital, Dà ­az could see the writing on the wall. By May of 1911, it was clear that he could not win, and he went into exile. In June, Madero entered the city in triumph. The Rule of Madero Madero barely had time to get comfortable in Mexico City before things got hot. He faced rebellion on all sides, as he broke all of his promises to those who had supported him and the remnants of Dà ­azs regime hated him. Orozco, sensing that Madero was not going to reward him for his role in the overthrow of Dà ­az, once again took up arms. Zapata, who had been instrumental in defeating Dà ­az, took to the field again when it became clear that Madero had no real interest in land reform. In November of 1911, Zapata wrote up his famous Plan of Ayala, which called for Maderos removal, demanded land reform, and named Orozco Chief of the Revolution. Fà ©lix Dà ­az, the former dictators nephew, declared himself in open rebellion in Veracruz. By the middle of 1912, Villa was Maderos only remaining ally, although Madero did not realize it. The greatest challenge to Madero was none of these men, however, but one much closer: General Victoriano Huerta, a ruthless, alcoholic soldier left over from the Dà ­az regime. Madero had sent Huerta to join forces with Villa and defeat Orozco. Huerta and Villa despised one another but managed to drive off Orozco, who fled to the United States. After returning to Mexico City, Huerta betrayed Madero during a standoff with forces loyal to Fà ©liz Dà ­az. He ordered Madero arrested and executed and set himself up as president. The Huerta Years With the quasi-legitimate Madero dead, the country was up for grabs. Two more major players entered the fray. In Coahuila, the former governor Venustiano Carranza took to the field and in Sonora, chickpea farmer and inventor Alvaro Obregà ³n raised an army and entered the action. Orozco returned to Mexico and allied himself with Huerta, but the â€Å"Big Four† of Carranza, Obregà ³n, Villa, and Zapata were united in their hatred of Huerta and determined to oust him from power. Orozcos support was not nearly enough. With his forces fighting on several fronts, Huerta was steadily pushed back. A great military victory might have saved him, as it would have drawn recruits to his banner, but when Pancho Villa won a crushing victory at the Battle of Zacatecas on June 23, 1914, it was over. Huerta fled to exile, and although Orozco fought on for a while in the north, he too went into exile in the United States before too long. The Warlords at War With the despised Huerta out of the way, Zapata, Carranza, Obregà ³n, and Villa were the four most powerful men in Mexico. Unfortunately for the nation, the only thing they had ever agreed on was that they did not want Huerta in charge, and they soon fell to fighting one another. In October of 1914, representatives of the â€Å"Big Four† as well as several smaller independents met at the Convention of Aguascalientes, hoping to agree on a course of action that would bring peace to the nation. Unfortunately, the peace efforts failed, and the Big Four went to war: Villa against Carranza and Zapata against anyone who entered his fiefdom in Morelos. The wild card was Obregà ³n; fatefully, he decided to stick with Carranza. The Rule of Carranza Venustiano Carranza felt that as a former governor, he was the only one of the â€Å"Big Four† qualified to rule Mexico, so he set himself up in Mexico City and began organizing elections. His trump card was the support of Obregà ³n, a genius military commander who was popular with his troops. Even so, he did not fully trust Obregà ³n, so he shrewdly sent him after Villa, hoping, no doubt, that the two would finish each other off so that he could deal with the pesky Zapata and Fà ©lix Dà ­az at his leisure. Obregà ³n headed north to engage Villa in a clash of two of the most successful revolutionary generals. Obregà ³n had been doing his homework, however, reading up on trench warfare being fought abroad. Villa, on the other hand, still relied on the one trick that had carried him so often in the past: an all-out charge by his devastating cavalry. The two met several times, and Villa always got the worst of it. In April of 1915, at the Battle of Celaya, Obregà ³n fought off countless cavalry charges with barbed wire and machine guns, thoroughly routing Villa. The next month, the two met again at the Battle of Trinidad and 38 days of carnage ensued. Obregà ³n lost an arm at Trinidad, but Villa lost the war. His army in tatters, Villa retreated to the north, destined to spend the rest of the revolution on the sidelines. In 1915, Carranza set himself up as president pending elections and won the recognition of the United States, which was hugely important to his credibility. In 1917, he won the elections he had set up and began the process of stamping out remaining warlords, such as Zapata and Dà ­az. Zapata was betrayed, set up, ambushed, and assassinated on April 10, 1919, on Carranzas orders. Obregà ³n retired to his ranch with the understanding that he would leave Carranza alone, but he expected to take over as president after the 1920 elections. The Rule of Obregà ³n Carranza reneged on his promise to support Obregà ³n in 1920, which proved to be a fatal mistake. Obregà ³n still enjoyed the support of much of the military, and when it became apparent that Carranza was going to install little-known Ignacio Bonillas as his successor, Obregà ³n quickly raised a massive army and marched on the capital. Carranza was forced to flee  and was assassinated by supporters of Obregà ³n on May 21, 1920. Obregà ³n was easily elected in 1920 and served his four-year term as president. For this reason, many historians believe the Mexican Revolution ended in 1920, although the nation suffered from horrible violence for another decade or so until the level-headed Là ¡zaro Cà ¡rdenas took office. Obregà ³n ordered the assassination of Villa in 1923 and was himself shot to death by a Roman Catholic fanatic in 1928, ending the time of the â€Å"Big Four.† Women in the Revolution Before the revolution, women in Mexico were relegated to a traditional existence, working in the home and in the fields with their men and wielding little political, economic, or social clout. With the revolution came an opportunity for participation and many women joined up, serving as writers, politicians, and even soldiers. Zapatas army, in particular, was known for the number of female soldaderas among the ranks and even serving as officers. Women who participated in the revolution were reluctant to return to their quiet lifestyle after the dust had settled, and the revolution marks an important milestone in the evolution of Mexican womens rights. Importance of the Revolution In 1910, Mexico still had a largely feudal social and economic base: rich landowners ruled like medieval dukes on large estates, keeping their workers impoverished, deep in debt, and with barely enough basic necessities to survive. There were some factories, but the basis of the economy was still mostly in agriculture and mining. Porfirio Dà ­az had modernized much of Mexico, including laying train tracks and encouraging development, but the fruits of all of this modernization went exclusively to the rich. A drastic change was obviously necessary for Mexico to catch up with other nations, which were developing industrially and socially. Because of this, some historians feel that the Mexican Revolution was a necessary â€Å"growing pain for the backward nation. This view tends to gloss over the sheer destruction wrought by 10 years of war and mayhem. Dà ­az may have played favorites with the wealthy, but much of the good that he did—railways, telegraph lines, oil wells, buildings—were destroyed in a classic case of â€Å"throwing the baby out with the bathwater.† By the time Mexico was once again stable, hundreds of thousands had died, development had been set back by decades, and the economy was in ruins. Mexico is a nation with tremendous resources, including oil, minerals, productive agricultural land, and hard-working people, and its recovery from the revolution was bound to be relatively speedy. The biggest obstacle to recovery was corruption, and the 1934 election of the honest Là ¡zaro Cà ¡rdenas gave the nation a chance to get back on its feet. Today, there are few scars left from the revolution itself, and Mexican schoolchildren may not even recognize the names of minor players in the conflict such as Felipe Angeles or Genovevo de la O. The lasting effects of the revolution have all been cultural. The PRI, the party that was born in the revolution, held onto power for decades. Emiliano Zapata, the symbol of land reform and proud ideological purity, has become an international icon for just rebellion against a corrupt system. In 1994, a rebellion broke out in Southern Mexico; its protagonists called themselves the Zapatistas and declared that Zapatas revolution was still in progress and would be until Mexico adopted true land reform. Mexico loves a man with personality, and the charismatic Pancho Villa lives on in art, literature, and legend, while the dour Venustiano Carranza has been all but forgotten. The revolution has proven to be a deep well of inspiration for Mexicos artists and writers. The muralists, including Diego Rivera, remembered the revolution and painted it often. Modern writers such as Carlos Fuentes have set novels and stories in this turbulent era, and films such as Laura Esquivels Like Water for Chocolate take place against the revolutionary backdrop of violence, passion, and change. These works romanticize the gory revolution in many ways, but always in the name of the inner search for national identity that continues in Mexico today. Source McLynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. Basic Books, August 15, 2002.