Monday, September 30, 2019

A Case Study on: Toyota Revs Up U.S. Sales Essay

Since 1903, Chevrolet or Ford has been the best-selling car brand in the United States until 2002. Between two competitors, Ford is the first position in the market that year Toyota motor corporation of Japan sold cars nearest to the two competitors and Toyota will pass Ford in the very near future as because for the effectiveness of its long-term planning, modest goal and Toyota developed Strategy that modest growth in Japan, Europe and North America that was biggest opportunities in Southeast Asia but unfortunately economics level of Southeast Asia has slowed. The Japanese market is becoming more competitive for Toyota and the firm is losing sales to Honda & Nissan. For recovering this situation, Toyota’s manger intend to exploit opportunity fully and Toyota sales more vehicles in the states than in Japan. Than the firm uses corporate level strategy to focus on U. S market this strategy leads the firm into top place in the America market. â€Å"WE Must Americanize. † – Fujio Cho Toyota Motor Corporation Q. 1. List the threats and opportunities that Toyota is facing in its environment. Then list the strength and weakness of Toyota? See more: Satirical elements in the adventure of Huckleberry Finn essay Answer: Basis on the Toyota’s business environment, Toyota facing some several threats and opportunities. These are point out in the below: Threats: 1. The economies level of Southeast Asian countries has slowed. 2. The Japanese market is getting more competitive for Toyota. 3. Toyota is losing sales to Honda and Nissan. 4. Initially Ford and Chevrolet has been best-selling car brand in the U. S market. Opportunities: 1. Exploiting of Toyota’s intend in the U. S. market 2. Approaching to local managers in order to Americanize. 3. Import taxes and current risk are reduced by manufacturing 2/3 of the cars U. S. and keeping revenues and expenses in U. S. dollars. 4. Utilizing American designers to compete effectively in the U. S. market Strengths: 1. The effectiveness of Toyota’s in long-term planning. 2. Toyota has innovative new product development. 3. The American competitors have been slow to respond to Toyota’s threat. 4. As a company, Toyota is beginning to set better long-term goals. 5. Toyota has accomplished ambitious goals. 6. Toyota do not like new direction and prefer that the firm stick â€Å"Toyota Way† Weaknesses: 1. Initially, Toyota had a very conservative approach to goals. 2. Failure to recognize market opportunity to develop a full-size pickup truck. 3. Slowing economies level in Southeast Asian countries.. 4. Traditionalists inside Toyota do not like where the company is headed and want to stick to old ways. 5. Lack of understanding of American preferences at the highest levels of the company. Q. 2. Consider Toyota’s U. S auto business. What business level strategy is the firm using? What factors did you rely on in reaching your decision? Answer: Toyota’s CEO realize that they must Americanize for this purpose the firm is using more American designers for care to be sold in the U. S market. This allows the firm to complete effectively with U. S auto market and to stay in touch with demands of American consumers. To achieve U. S market, the firm is using Geographical corporate level strategy. I relied on in reaching my decision, several distinct factors. These are given below: 1. Toyota’s business environment 2. Intend to exploit opportunity of Toyota’s manager 3. Toyota’s corporate level strategy Q. 3. In your opinion, is Toyota’s corporate level strategy (to focus on the U. S Market) likely to be effective over the next ten years? Why or why not? Answer: yes, I think Toyota’s corporate level strategy is definitely to be effective over the next ten years as because it is a company which is known for the effectiveness of its long term planning. Its corporate level strategy gets tremendous success in U. S Market. They are using American designers which will help to compete in the future due to get knowledge of updated consumer demand. It also using overall cost leadership strategy in American market. By considering the above case I think Toyota’s corporate level strategy would be effective over the next ten years.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Member of Parliament Essay

This puts the rest of the team in a situation that could cause stress and extra work that they wouldn’t have had to deal with if the team member had done what they said they would do. In order to avoid this it is important for all team members to understand the importance of doing what they are assigned to do. †¢A team member who does not meet deadlines There are many things to consider when something goes wrong when you are a part of a team or group. The first thing I would do is make sure that the deadline was known and that the team member understood the deadline and what was supposed to be completed. If there was a misunderstanding then I would make sure that the rest of the team didn’t have the same misunderstanding about the deadlines and their importance. This situation is especially true for me and this assignment. I was late in submitting my portion and it has put team members in this exact scenario. The way I would handle this with myself, is to make sure I know how important deadlines are and how the impact the work of the rest of the team. I would let myself know that people are relying on me to have my portion of a project or assignment done in order for their portions to be implemented and the final project to be completed. In order to avoid this in the future, I will make sure that I keep track of all deadlines and schedule my time accordingly.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Reaction paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reaction - Research Paper Example oremost, chapter five champions the theme of the myth and reality of Portland’s engaged citizenry and process.Apparently, in the 1950’s there was minimal civic involvement in matters pertaining to planning and development. On that note, this can be attributed to the fact that not many people were literate thus could not participate actively in matters pertaining to planning in the town. However, over the years the civic involvement has rapidly increased. In addition to that, this can be because there has been tremendous increase in literacy levels among the pubic and thus aware of their duty in the development of the town. Furthermore, the book also documents the other factor that has led to the increased civic involvement, is the innovations made in terms of technology. In fact, it is worth noting that the innovations for instance radio have played an important role in creating awareness regarding matters of development and planning of the towns strategies. Evidently, the increased civic involvement has served to boost the live of the people thus is widely accepted among the population. Evidently, drawing basis from the book, the author documents the reason as to this happening is due to the fact of corruption and mismanagement of funds. Apparently, as a result of the actions of the leadership body of the town, the cost of housing among other basic requirements. On that note, this was able to inhibit the growth of this town. It is worth noting that the residents who moved into Portland were characterised by diversity in their culture for instance religion among other differences thus the need for representation in matters pertaining the town. Evidently, through the aid of protest groups they were able to address their grievance and consequently, they were able to get a representative to the towns leadership thus increased the civic involvement of the minority group in matters of planning and development. Subsequently, this representative was mandated with

Friday, September 27, 2019

Identifying of the Project Assumptions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Identifying of the Project Assumptions - Essay Example   All these assumptions are made after the initial assumption that installation of new ERP system is the solution to the increased customer base that is expected after ABC Corp took over sales and even distribution from an affiliated company In order for ABC Corp to succeed, it is critical that they formulate a plan that is clear, concise effective and efficient enough to manage the provider of the software, the provider of the IT services and even the subject matter experts. The formulation of the plan should also be followed by an execution schedule if it is to succeed at all. Success also depends on whether the company can be able to free enough subject matter experts from their daily work in order for them to provide their services in the installation of the new ERP system and also whether ABC Corp can be able to free enough space needed by the project team to work without any interruptions  whatsoever.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Person of Christ Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The Person of Christ - Essay Example a. Christ’s Deity There are many passages in the Bible that confirm that Jesus is divine. Here are a few examples:- In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God†¦And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen His glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth 2 No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known3. Thomas answered him, â€Å"My Lord and my God!†4 Even though scripture clearly states the deity of Christ, these scriptures are often challenged. For instance there are those that believe that Jesus never called himself God and any verse that suggests so was written by His disciples in order to deify the man that significantly impacted their lives. There are some who believe that Jesus was only a great teacher of morality which would at best place him at per with other religious leaders.5 This notwithstanding, Jesus’ own underst anding of his deity can be seen in six primary ways. First is that he taught with divine authority 6 The difference with Jesus and the other religious teachers of his time like the Pharisees and Sadducees is that they had no authority when they presented their teaching. They derived their authority from earlier authorities.7 In fact, even Moses and all other prophets of the Old Testament sis not speak with their own authority but with the authority of the Lord. Jesus however, interprets the Old Testament thus: You have heard it said†¦but I say†¦8 it is this same authority that Jesus used to affirm himself as Lord and Judge who will reward the righteous and judge the wicked. The second view of Christ’s deity is his relationship with God the father. We see Jesus as a young boy seated in the temple discussing scripture with the teachers of the law. His parents went over looking for him and when they finally found him, his answer to their question on why he wandered fro m them was, Why were you looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?9(Luke 2:49) Jesus referred to God as His father in many other places in scripture and this assertion may be considered a radical assertion but it is also a good proof of his deity. In fact, such an assertion was not a very common thing in Jewish literature and it made him unique from other Jewish leaders both past and present. The third illustration is the phrase â€Å"son of man† which Jesus used over and over again to refer to himself. Even though the phrase might simply mean a son of a human being, Bible scholars believe he was using it in reference to the son of man described in Daniel 7 who was to be a ruler of the whole world. 10 There are many instances in Scripture in which Jesus affirmed himself as the messianic son of man. For instance, he stated that he had authority to forgive sin and he even did what was considered by experts of the law as work on the Sabbath by healing the paralytic man. Fourthly, Jesus taught many things that emphasised on his real identity. He taught about the kingdom of God in which he was a son. He taught on how he was around even before Abraham was. His emphasis on his identity can easily be seen in the question he asked

Program capstone IP2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Program capstone IP2 - Essay Example y and Unmistakability, meaning that a clear and accurate relationship exists between the criteria and the real consequences, comprehensive but concise, meaning that they cover the range of relevant consequences but the evaluation framework remains systematic and manageable and there are no redundancies, direct and ends-oriented, meaning they report directly on the consequences of interest and provide enough information that informed value judgments can reasonably be made on the basis of them, measurable and Consistently Applied to allow consistent comparisons across other options. It clearly elaborate the criteria should be able to distinguish the relative degree of impact across other options. The exclusion of the qualitative descriptions of impact may not be there, or impacts that can’t be physically measured in the field. For good decision making, you should include the following metrics into your framework to minimize the chances of making a bad decision. First perform a condition Analysis, what is motivating the need for a choice, what might occur if no decision is made, who will decision impact either indirectly or indirectly, what data, exploration, or supporting information you have to validate  the inclinations driving your  decision. Secondly, Focus your Decision to Public Scrutiny and remember there are no decisions which are private. Rather the details surrounding any decision will likely come out. In addition, conduct a Cost/Benefit Analysis, by doing the potential benefits derived from the decision justify the expected costs. Assess the Reward or risk Ratio; what are all the likely rewards, and when compared with all the potential risks are the odds in your favor, or are they stacked against you. Furthermore, Evaluate whether  it is the Right thing to do. I.e. standing behind decisio ns that everyone supports doesn’t particularly require a lot of boldness. On the other hand, standing behind what one believes is the right decision in the face of

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Level One Computer Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Level One Computer Systems - Essay Example the â€Å"de-perimeterization of security† where it has become difficult to demarcate the line between a firm and its clients, suppliers and partners (PGP Corporation, 2007). Enforcing effective security standards is a challenge in this complex milieu. There are many reasons as to why information is on longer safe and there is a need for data protection and security. The notion that sensitive information is within the walls of the organization and so is safe is no longer justified. With the advancement in technology and the new computing form factors, information can be accessed by malicious insiders. The people who are responsible for administrating the systems can also present a risk to the bypass of sensitive information. It is not easy to define who has access to what information. This also necessitates that an effective security protocol must be present to ensure that sensitive data is not leaked out. Data protection is also necessary to build a bond of trust with the cus tomers. When a customer approaches an organization, the organization is bound to protect his or her privacy. Not doing so can bring bad repute to the organization and cause it to lose its customers. A comprehensive data security system encompasses an assessment of the associated risks and threats to data security. A strategy that includes a thorough assessment of these risks enables the organization to understand the value of the data that is at risk and the consequences of any loss. Data could be lost by many ways. One can be due to malicious infections. System crashes and natural happenings such as floods can also cause the loss of significant amount of sensitive data. When considering data protection, the organization needs to review who has access to what type of data, who used the Internet, who should be given limited access, what type of firewalls and anti-malware solutions need to be in place, the usage and maintenance of passwords and the training being given to staff (Spam laws,

Monday, September 23, 2019

Human resource dimensions and environmental management Research Paper

Human resource dimensions and environmental management - Research Paper Example One element which has broadened the scope of human resources dimensions in business is the amalgamation of corporate social responsibility of businesses towards community, stakeholders, environment, economy and both the internal and external surroundings. Keeping the ethical stance of businesses in mind, human resources now assume greater responsibilities as to foster an environment of trust, ethics, beliefs, norms and values which encourage employees and people involved to go for business practices which are favorable towards the conservation of environment and communities of practice (Jerry 1997). Topic area In achieving the corporate social responsibility objectives, major thrust is placed upon the talent, skills, competencies and abilities of human resources. This is because CSR is a triple bottom line (Economic, social and environmental) and exercising control over CSR initiatives need cooperation, employee involvement, professionalism and alignment between the values of organiz ation and employees (Preuss, Haunschild & Matten 2009). Organizational growth has been long associated with corporate culture and a value system of an organization whereby aspirations and commitments of employees are integrated and attached with that of organization’s sustainability and environmental obligations, both local and global (Chung et al. 2008). Functions of human resources management like recruitment, training and development (Campbell 1990), compensation, employee engagement, retention, promotion, appraisal and others define the way and roadmap of how an organization intends to comply with its CSR initiatives. The nexus of CSR and HRM dimensions has gained immense popularity and strategic attention in business world because HRM is considered to be the driving force behind proper CSR initiatives planning and implementation (Inyang, Awa & Enuoh 2011). This forms the basis of this research whereby connections and linkages between CSR and HRM will be studied in detail and insights developed as to how HRM could serve as the framework for applying CSR principles in an organization (Melynyte & Ruzevicius 2008) (Figure 1 below). Figure 1 Research question The research in particular attempts to identify the role of HRM dimensions in CSR initiatives of an organization. Organizations are generally associated with perpetual existence. However, this research will specifically try to analyze the bonding between CSR, sustainability and HRM dimensions in case of major sports and cultural events like Commonwealth Games and Olympics. This is chosen because in the case of organizations, long term planning is involved and concerns and CSR issues can be taken care of appropriately. However, in the planning and delivery of such colossal events, temporary completion and success often leads to ignorance of CSR objectives and management authorities generally deviate from their ethical stance and become the target of much criticism (Jackson and Selivler 1990). As suc h, the research seeks to address the following questions: 1. What HRM practices are generally adopted while planning from events such as Olympics, World Cups and Commonwealth games? 2. How the element of sustainability is incorporated and implemented in planning and delivering such events? 3. What is the role of human resource dimensions in exercising full control over the CSR initiatives of management authorities of these events? 4. How improvements or alterations in human resource di

Sunday, September 22, 2019

A review of an article (Carr) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

A review of an article (Carr) - Essay Example tiveness to companies has greatly declined causing a necessity for the top managements strategically to evaluate their position on IT investment (Carr, 2003). Numerous correspondences cited on this article closely relate IT with previous technologies in terms of their growth but most importantly, they have likened IT to infrastructural technology (Carr, 2003). There are great similarities that exist between their characteristics considering their share ability nature since they offer more value than when they are customized. IT is best suitable when partnered with other firms in order to yield the highest level of results exemplified by early technologies like Electricity and rail transportation, which is the very nature of IT (Carr, 2003). The article further argues that for a technology to be competitive it must be owned and should be able to differentiate an organization from their competitors. This is not so with IT because many companies have the ability to reproduce on the shelf similar products to serve similar purpose. Additionally the cost of IT products has drastically gone down therefore almost all organization can afford the IT investments eliminating the uniqueness that IT can offer for competitiveness. Therefore, the article concludes that for companies to be able to rely on IT as a strategic goal to competitiveness, they should consider changing their overall perspective. They should endeavor to reduce the costs invested in IT through evaluating the returns that IT investments offer. Companies should ensure that they get longer IT value and should not always rush to upgrade their IT resources without doing a need assessment because not all IT investment bring equal financial returns (Carr,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Ethics on Surrogate Mothers Essay Example for Free

Ethics on Surrogate Mothers Essay Sometimes couples who cannot conceive a baby by themselves choose to use a surrogate mother, where another woman carries their child. One way of surrogacy is when a woman whos unable to carry a baby to term, but is otherwise fertile, has her embryos transplanted to the surrogate mother. The eggs might be fertilized by the biological father or by artificial insemination if the male has fertility issues. In other cases, a surrogate mother is in fact the biological mother of the child as her very own eggs are used to create the embryo. In certain states, such as Arkansas and Delaware, surrogacy is illegal. Even in states where surrogacy is allowed, it can be quite a complicated process for the non-biological mother to be named as the parent, particularly in cases when the surrogate is the biological mother. The surrogate must sign away her maternal rights so the intended mother can adopt the child. If the sperm of the adoptive mothers husband was used to fertilize the egg, the biological father is named on the childs birth certificate. Many states require a legal contract be drafted between the couple and the surrogate and her spouse or partner detailing all arrangements concerning the pregnancy and birth. The parties involved with a surrogacy contract should seek the advice of legal counsel to be sure that pertinent issues are addressed and that the contract is in compliance with state and local laws involving surrogacy and adoption. Sometimes a surrogate mother changes her mind and refuses to give up her child. However, in states where surrogacy is allowed, the biological mother usually doesnt win custody or visitation rights. Typically, the surrogate and the parents sign an agreement to avoid this from happening. Nonetheless, there’s always the possibility that the surrogate mother might win her case. Many surrogacy agreements state what the surrogate can and cannot do while pregnant. But ultimately, the parents should trust the surrogate mom to do whats in the best interests of the baby. Issues may develop whenever a surrogate breaches the agreement by smoking, abusing drugs or consuming} alcohol while pregnant. As with any pregnancy theres always the possibility for medical or obstetrical troubles, which may hurt the baby or the surrogate mother. For starters, theres the chance of transmission of contagious disease to the surrogate when another womans eggs are transplanted into the surrogate. Because of this, both biological parents should be prescreened. In case a surrogate develops problems in the beginning that put her life at an increased risk, she may want to end the pregnancy. Another issue that may arise is if health practitioners discover learn that the fetus has possible birth defects and other health concerns. In that situation, the parents may choose they cannot continue with the surrogacy. This generates all sorts of legal issues, especially when the sperm is from a donor or eggs other than the surrogates were used for pregnancy. The problem then becomes who gets to determine whether to proceed with the pregnancy. Even though some people see surrogacy as baby-selling and look down on a female who is a surrogate, in recent years surrogacy has become more of a recognized practice. However the ethical issue remains concerning whether a female whos being paid for her surrogacy is exploiting infertile couples and entering the agreement for money. Others begin to see the infertile couple as exploiting the surrogates body and taking advantage of a female who needs money. Another issue, a couple that would adopt a child would be rigorously screened and be assessed to their suitability. This would not be the case with surrogacy. Some people who would be restricted from adopting could avoid this process by using a surrogate. One of the key issues is with regards to surrogacy is it is impossible to determine the risks involved in the surrogacy process. A surrogate needs to be informed of the potential risks to her health and the possible psychological trauma she can suffer. There should a moral requirement for all parties involved to consider the welfare of the child born into any agreement. However, surrogacy raises the debate of people’s â€Å"right† to have children. If we refuse the option of surrogacy, are we discriminating against the infertile? The first recorded case of surrogacy in the United States was in 1976. Noel Keane, a lawyer, arranged the first surrogacy agreement between a surrogate mother and the intended parents. This mother was not compensated financially. Afterwards, Keane went on to create the Infertility Center, which arranged hundreds of surrogacy agreements every year . However despite the numerous ethical issues at stake, statistics show that there has been an increase in the numbers of women who become surrogates. From 2004-2008 the number of infants born to gestational surrogates had doubled. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology reported from 738 infants born to over 1,400 from surrogate births. However, the amount of surrogacies annually is likely to be more, as many fertility centers dont report to SART. Additionally, there are couples who enter private agreements with a surrogate where agencies arent involved. References Pacific Connection Fertility Services: Surrogacy Yale New Haven Teachers Institute: Ethical Problems Surrounding Surrogate Motherhood Dr Rebecca Gibbs, North East Essex PCT, Surrogacy, January 2008.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Autocad Vs Microstation: Summary and Evaluation

Autocad Vs Microstation: Summary and Evaluation Patricia Ferreras Table of Contents (Jump to) What is CAD? AutoCAD and MicroStation History Research 2D Design Features 3D Design Features Interoperability Conclusion Bibliography What is CAD? CAD is an abbreviation of Computer Aided Design, and refers to software used to create detailed, precise drawings and technical illustrations. CAD software is capable of creating two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) models. (, 2011) AutoCAD and MicroStation History: AutoCAD was introduced in 1982 as a desktop application. Since 2010, it has evolved into a mobile web and cloud based application, currently marketed as AutoCAD 360. (Wikipedia, 2014) MicroStation was introduced early in 1987 with the capacity to write to design files with the extension â€Å".DGN†. In its early days, it had simple modification abilities, and it was capable of displaying each element in their intermediate states during placement. MicroStation V8i (SELECTseries 2)- July 2010 added integrated point cloud support. (Bentley, 2014) Research The scope of my research is to compare the two leaders software packages in design, both of them are used by a wide range of professionals, mainly in the fileds of Engineering, Architecture and Industrial Design. Different people have different needs or preferences, but I want to keep my research as objective as possible, that is why I going to focus is three key aspects of the software, 2D, 3D and interoperability. 2D Design Features: The comparison is based in the latest versions of each program, and on the available functions and tools for managing 2D designs that a CAD software provides. (Chief, 2012) AutoCAD 2013 MicroStation V8i In 2D Designing, what makes users happy are the features and tools that AutoCAD provides, such as: The Sketch tool which allows 2D Drafts to be intuitively drawn A customizable tool palette, color palette and command log Tape Measure Tool, text Box and Snap to grid functionalities, From 3D models generates 2D Drawings Even though MicroStation provides many useful tools, it is lacking some key features for 2D Designing. Its available features include: An advanced sketch tool Color palette, tool palettes and command logs, all of which are customizable From 3D Models, could generate 2D Drawings 3D Design Features: These features include Simulation, 3D Modeling and animation using features provided by the CAD software. (Chief, 2012) (enggcyclopedia, 2012) AutoCAD 2013 MicroStation V8i AutoCAD 2013 include the following features and tools needed for the 3D Modeling, Rendering and Animation: Has parametric Modeling Tools Material changes as they occur, so it could be viewed in real time Extrude 3D Models from 2D Drawings Photorealistic models could be created. Basic animation projects are enable through its animation features AutoCAD is recognized as a business-oriented design tool, and is regarded as following industry standards. MicroStation provides more of a thorough platform for 3D Modeling and Animation. It is more advanced than AutoCAD in some respects: Parametric modeling tools and features Real time modifications can be previewed as they are implemented Microstation can â€Å"extrude† 3D Models from 2D Drawings with 3D geometric surfaces Photorealistic models can be achieved 3D Printing is supported MicroStation claims to respect its users by providing them with a CAD environment built to cater for all their needs. Interoperability: This factor relates to collaboration functionality with other CAD Applications, the ability for more than one designer to work simultaneously on one platform, cloud features, and a number of other functions. (Chief, 2012) (Alvarez, 2006) AutoCAD 2013 MicroStation V8i AutoCAD 2013’s full-featured user-interface and interoperability features include the following: Support for readable and writable file formats such as: DWG, PDF, 3DS, DWF The Autodesk Cloud Feature, Autodesk 360 allows designers on the CAD Software Workspace to work away from the office. It provides each user with roughly 3 GB of space, and this figure can be increased to cater for file sharing. Integration of Google Mapping The users felt that the re-design introduced with Land Development was very different from the previous applications such as CivilCAD and Softdesk. MicroStation is an application with total integration of other applications within Bentley or external applications that develop in a MicroStation environment . It wins the war of interoperability. The main features include the following: It supports readable and writeable file formats including: Sketchup, DWF, Revit, PDF,DWG An AutoCAD interoperability function which allow designers to work with all of Autodesk’s CAD Versions Geo-location is supported by providing designers with coordinates for actual real-life buildings. It allows integration of Google Maps, and allows for sharing and networking between designers. Designer’s work is protected from intellectual theft via a digital signature feature The users find quite easy to use the different applications of MicroStation, is very similar design. Conclusion Which one is better? Well, from a personal point of view, AutoCAD is a clear winner when it comes to 2D Design. This is possibly because it was the first CAD software that I learned how to use, and the one that I have used more often. But I am not the only one that thinks this: many professionals that use AutoCAD agreed that â€Å"AutoCAD still trumps the MicroStation with its advanced 2D Drafting capabilities† (Chief, 2012) When it comes to 3D support, I have to give this to MicroStation. I lost count of how many coffees I had while the computer was rendering a 3D Design. It takes practically forever, so the best thing to do was to let the machine to do the magic and take a break. (Alvarez, 2006) In conclusion, both CAD tools provide features which classify them as advanced drafting tools. These tools can be used by CAD designers to draw and design both 2D and 3D Designs, independent of their complexity. (Prakoso, 2011) In summary, I would regard AutoCAD as a better drafting tool, but MicroStation as a better CAD platform. Bibliography History of MicroStation MicroStation Wiki MicroStation Be Communities by Bentley. 2014. History of MicroStation MicroStation Wiki MicroStation Be Communities by Bentley. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 10 March 2014]. Autodesk Company. 2014. Autodesk Company. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 10 March 2014]. AutoCAD Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2014. AutoCAD Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 March 2014]. BE Magazine En Espanol Volume 1-Issue 12. 2014. BE Magazine En Espanol Volume 1-Issue 12. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 March 2014]. MicroStation ® vs. AutoCAD ® which is better. 2014. MicroStation ® vs. AutoCAD ® which is better. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 March 2014]. Whats the Difference Between AutoCAD and Other 3D programs?. 2014. Whats the Difference Between AutoCAD and Other 3D programs?. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 March 2014]. Microstation or Revit..what to choose? | Forum | Archinect. 2014. Microstation or Revit..what to choose? | Forum | Archinect. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 18 March 2014]. AutoCAD versus MicroStation, which one is the best? | CAD Notes. 2014. AutoCAD versus MicroStation, which one is the best? | CAD Notes. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 21 March 2014]. . 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at:,d.ZGU. [Accessed 21 March 2014]. Reducing Childhood Obesity: Health Promotion or CBT Reducing Childhood Obesity: Health Promotion or CBT NuRS21010 Understanding Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Concept Terms Boolean Operator Hits Population: Childhood Childhood, young people, children, child, youth. (Childhood obesity or young people or children or child or your ) and health promotion or cognitive behavioural therapy 38 Intervention: health promotion Health, promotion, (Childhood obesity or young people or children or child or your ) and health promotion or cognitive behavioural therapy 21 Comparison: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT, behavioural, behavioural (Childhood obesity or young people or children or child or your ) and health promotion or (cognitive behavioural therapy or CBT ) 17 Outcome: obesity Obese, weight gain. (Childhood or young people or children or child or youth ) and ( obesity or obese or weight gain) and health promotion or (cognitive behavioural therapy or CBT ) 11 Which is more effective in reducing childhood obesity health promotion or Cognitive behavioural therapy? Concept Terms Truncate Hits Population: Childhood Childhood, young people, children, child, youth. Child* obesity health promotion or cognitive behavioural therapy 26 Intervention: Nurse led health promotion Health, promotion, Child* obesity and health promotion and cognitive behavioural therapy 15 Comparison: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT, behavioural, behavioural Child* obesity health promotion or cognitive behaviour* tharap? 10 The first part of my essay will be based on the evaluation on my question this will include looking at the strengths, weaknesses and how I could improve it if I were to do it again. I wanted to research the question: which is more effective in reducing childhood obesity, health promotion or Cognitive behavioural therapy? As I find the topic childhood obesity really fascinating especially with the current national epidemic of childhood obesity. This made me realise that it’s a concerning health issue so I wanted to explore the possible interventions which were available for those suffering from childhood obesity. To do this I compared one of the most common interventions (health promotion) to one of the emerging interventions being used to treat childhood obesity (cognitive behavioural therapy). I used the CINHAL database for my literature search as it provides indexing of the top nursing and allied health literature (CINHAL, 2013) and offers information relevant to my question. When researching I used truncation I decided to truncate the terms in my research question as I wanted to collect the information which was relevant to my question rather than irrelevant data, as it did not correlate to my question. This worked as each time I truncated I was able to gather data which related to my research question so this was beneficial mechanism when gathering relevant data. A research mechanism which I used was the Boolean operator to help me find appropriate literature. Boolean operators utilise the terms: â€Å"and†, â€Å"or† and â€Å"not† to restrict, increase, or narrow searches depending on Boolean logic, which describes how Boolean operators manipulates large sets of data (Barker et al 2011).Boolean operators link keywords and phrases this informs the search engine how to interpret the search, which helps identify the results the researcher is looking for (Barker et al 2011). By utilizing the Boolean operator it helped narrow my search and provided me with the literature which was relevant to my research question. Because at first when I researched I got a lot of hits but a majority if the literature was irrelevant and therefore not required, but by using the boolean operator it allowed me to access specific literature for my research question. I think I could have improved my research question by making my research question more specific for instance instead of childhood obesity which is a very large age group I could have narrowed it down to teenagers. As this will give me a sense of direction when looking for supporting literature as it’s a specific age group this can be supported by Sackett (2000) who sates that by asking a precise question you can look for specific knowledge for chosen research topic. Whereas with my current question I have a lot to cover as it looks at childhood obesity which is a broad age group, which makes it difficult gathering supporting literature. Another weakness is that although I gathered literature for my research question a majority of it was applicable to health promotion interventions in comparison to cognitive behavioural therapy in relation to childhood obesity. So to alter this I think I would have compared health promotional techniques to non-health promotion health techniques. This will ensure I get a balance of supporting literature between the comparisons, as there was little literature for cognitive behavioural therapy. This part of the essay will critically appraise intervention for ineffective airway clearance in asthmatic children: a controlled and randomised clinical trial (Lima et al, 2013). The CASP tool (Guyatt et al 1993) will be used to achieve this. 1. Was the question clear? The population that was studied was 42 asthmatic children age 2. Was this a randomised controlled trial? The study used a randomised clinical trial (RCT). A RCT is where partakers are randomly allotted to one or more control groups this is determined by the number of interventions (Parahoo, 2006). Randomisation means allocating applicants to experimental or control groups at random so that partakers have an equal likelihood of being placed in either group (Lang, 1997). This eradicates selection bias and offers equilibrium amid recognised and unidentified confounding factors to make a control group similar to the treatment group (Akbong, 2005). The method was apt for the question being researched as Machin Fayers, (2010) states that RCT’s are the principal mode for defining the comparative efficacy and safety of substitute medical devices, interventions or treatments. This method is apt for the research as the question aimed to analyse the effectiveness of an intervention for the nursing diagnosis of ineffective airway clearance in asthmatic children. The study used this method to verify the effect of asthmatic of an intervention for asthmatic children. Lawrence et al (2010) RCTs are the finest for trials determining the impact of health interventions, they’re very robust and systematic for critiquing the efficiency of health interventions. Though there is a risk of bias when there are errors in the strategy and organisation of a trial (Akobeng, 2005). 3.Were participants allocated to intervention group and control groups? The partakers were aptly allocated to intervention and control groups. As participants were allocated to groups via generating an algorithm of random numbers through the use of the R software (Lima et al, 2013). The inclusion criteria in the study were asthma identified by a doctor, based on assessment and physical existence defining features and linked factors termed in the NANDA international taxonomy age 4. Were participants and staff blind to participants study group? The team member who did the randomisation did not partake in the interventions or the outcome evaluation. This shows that the study used blinding which is vital as there is a threat in RCTs exploring the benefits of one intervention over an alternative as it can impact outcomes, causing influenced results. Blinding trials reduces bias, blinding refers to the exercise of stopping partakers, health professionals, and those gathering and examining data from knowing who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group, to avert them from being influenced by such knowledge (Day, 2000). Studies show that by blinding patients and health professionals avoids bias. Trials which didn’t blind bore more estimates of treatment effects than trials in which authors conveyed blinding (odds ratios overstated, by 17%) (Schulz Grimes, 2002). 5. Were all participants accounted in conclusion? All the participants in the study group were followed up for its conclusion. The participants in the control group did not get the option to be in the intervention group or vice versa. 6 .Were participants in all groups followed up and data collection in the same way? All the participants were followed up in the study. The effect of the intervention was evaluated at a single moment, due to the obstruction of secretion as it reversed quickly and linked to working with other professionals (Lima et al, 2013). 7. Did the study have enough participants to minimise the chance of play? The study used chi-squared test for power calculation. The test aims to test the hypothesis of no association between two or multiple groups, criteria and population (West, 2008). The chi test found P=0.061, statically significance was assumed at P 8. What is the main result? The study found an improvement in obstructive symptoms in those who took the intervention offered, with great alterations in the displays of choking and adventitious breath sounds. The generalisations may be limited as children in the intervention group show higher values for age and weight. The group also consisted of children under the age of 36 months thus likely to have asthma attacks (Lima et al, 2013). This may question the validity of the results found. The study also found there was little research in this topic making it challenging when trying to compare findings with other research (Lima et al, 2013). The study uses a small sample as there are only 42 participants in the study, so not really representative. Akobeng, (2005) argues that when a study uses a small sample of participants in it can be difficult identify the real variances of results found from both the intervention and control group. The study highlights the need for research on airway clearance techniques to as sess the effectiveness of its use. The findings suggest studies to offer planned interventions during hospitalization to determine the link between the intervention and a decreased in the duration of hospital stay (Lima et al, 2013). 9. How precise are these results? The study used Mann–Whitney test uses the findings of the t-test to identify variances amid two groups of habitually distributed population (Burns Grove, 2005). The Mann Whitney test found that after the intervention, the intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group for the indicators of choking (16.83 vs. 26.17, P = 0.007) and adventitious breath sounds (16.4 vs. 26.6, P = 0.005). This illustrates that the detected variance between the groups is doubtful to have happened by chance hence the null hypothesises rejected due to no variance and the other hypothesis as there is an actual variance in the intervention group is taken into account (Akobeng, 2005). 10. Were all vital outcomes considered so the results can be applied? The participants in the study are classified as asthmatic it doesn’t specify the type of asthma they have. Knowing they type of asthma they had i.e. chronic or acute asthma is beneficial as will illustrate if there is a different effect on a patient with certain type of asthma. For instance Schechter (2007) found that airway clearance therapy has little or no effect on acute asthma, so techniques used in this study may not be applicable for those with acute asthma. Airway clearance techniques requires training in order for patient or carers to carry it out correctly, this may be an issue for some as they may not have the funding or money for training. In relation to parents and carers airway clearance techniques may be a barrier for them when implementing it to their child. As airway clearance techniques require equipment and considerable amount of time (Walsh et al, 2011) to carry out in order to ensure that it is carried out correctly and effectively on child. This can be an issue for parents and carers especially if they don’t have the time due to other issues such as work or taking care of other children. According Pryor (2009) to policy makers and health care professionals in the UK, are less likely to utilise the intervention of airway clearance in asthma patients due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of its usage in asthma patients this is also because of little research available on this topic. The study itself also mentions the lack of research available on airway clearance Walsh et al, (2011) techniques for asthma (Lima et al, 2013). Also found although airway clearance techniques have progressed over the years there is little research to illustrate the effectiveness of airway clearance techniques amid the child population who have asthma (Walsh et al, 2011). Reference List Akobeng AK. Evidence-based child health. 1. Principles of evidence-based medicine. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:837–40 Barker D., Barker M., Pinard , K., (2011). London : Cengage Learning. Blaikie N. (2009). Designing Social Research. 2nd ed. UK: Polity Press. CINHAL (2013). CINHAL Database (online). Available at:>. Accessed at 19th November 2013. Burns N. Grove S.K, (2005). The practise of nursing research: conduct, critique and utilisation. 5th ed. USA: Elsevier Saunders. Chia KS. Randomisation: magical cure for bias. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000;29:563–4. Day SJ, Altman DG. Blinding in clinical trials and other studies. BMJ 2000;321:504. Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, and Cook DJ (1993).Users’ guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. JAMA 1993; 270 (21): 2598-2601 and JAMA 1994; 271(1): 59-63 Lawrence M. Friedman, Furberg C.D, DeMets D (2010). Fundamentals of Clinical Trials (online). Available at:> Acessed at 6th January 2014. Lang TA, Secic M. How to report statistics in medicine. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1997. Lima L.H.O, Lopes M.V.O, Falcà £o R.T.S, Freitas R.M.R, Oliveira TF, da Costa M.C.C (2013). Intervention for ineffective airway clearance in asthmatic children: A controlled and randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2013; 19: 88–94 Machin D Fayers P, (2010). Randomized Clinical Trials: Design, Practice and Reporting (online). Available at: >. Accessed at 6th January 2014. NANDA, (2012).Defining NANDA (online). Available at :>. Accessed at 6th January 2014. Olbricht G Wong Y,(2008). Power and Sample Size Calculation (online). Available at: >. Accessed at 6th January 2014. Parahoo K. (2006) Nursing research : principles, process and issues 2 nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Pryor J.A. (2009).Physiotherapy for airway clearance in adults (pdf). Available at: >Accessed at: 3rd January 2014. Sackett D., Straus S., Richardson S., Rosenberg W., Haynes B (2000). Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. London : BMJ Publishing Group. Schulz KF. Assessing allocation concealment and blinding in randomised controlled trials: why bother? Evid Based Nurs 2000;5:36–7. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, et al. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;273:408–12. Schechter M S.(2007) Airway Clearance Applications in Infants and Children (pdf). Available at:> Accessed at 27th December 2013. Walsh B.K, Hood K, Merritt G. (2011). Paediatric airway maintenance and clearance in the acute care setting: how to stay out of trouble (online). Available at:>. Accessed at 6th January 2014. West M.D (2008). Use of the Chi-Square Statistic (pdf) .Available at:> Accessed at 6th January 2014.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Watergate Affair :: essays research papers

This analysis of the news media coverage will focus on the Watergate affair which originally began on June 17, 1972 with the break-in of the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the prestigious Watergate office complex in Washington D.C.. I will primarily concentrate on the negative impact that media coverage had to the publics eye. This media coverage, although justified and appropriate for the situation, ultimately destroyed the credibility of Nixon's administration and the ability to run an effective government which forced the first resignation of an American president.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The history of the events at hand is as follows. The Nixon Administration financed a White House Special Investigative Unit called the plumbers. This unit was initially established under John Erlichmann a top White House aide, to â€Å"plug† leaks from the White House to the press and consisted of former FBI and CIA operatives. It comes to fact that these plumbers were involved in illegal break-ins and wiretapping before the Watergate scandal. On June 17, 1972, the night watchman at the Watergate complex discovered adhesive tape on the basement doors of the complex. Five men were arrested that night and began a series of inquiries and investigations into the possible corruption of White House Officials. (Encyclopedia of the American Presidency, Volume 13, page 1603)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Among those arrested on the night of June 17, 1972 were James McCord Jr., security coordinator for the Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP also known as CREEP). (New York Times, June 21, 1972, page 1, column 3) Immediately after the arrests, the news media had already began initial accusations and offering possible motives to the public through statements like:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å" There was continuing speculation here and in the Cuban community in Miami that unnamed men, in or out of an anti-Castro organization, had carried out a number of politically sensitive operations to win the Governments sympathy for 30,000 to 40,000 Cuban refugees living in Spain.† (4 Hunted in Inquiry on Democratic Raid, New York Times, June 21, 1972, page 44, column 1)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On June 20, it came to the attention of President Richard Nixon that there were connections made between the burglars and CRP and various White House personnel. The president, on June 23, recommended that the CIA should prevent a FBI inquiry into the Watergate incident based on national security interests. To no avail, the FBI continued its investigation and eventually sifted through the maze of paper trails and cover up. Evidence began to surface, pointing to the administration itself. Realizing the internal nature of this situation, stories began to look like this:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å" No one was making any accusations yet, but in the midst of a curious

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Explication of John Donnes The Flea Essay -- essays research papers

On the surface, John Donne’s poem â€Å"The Flea† dramatizes the conflict between two people on the issue of premarital sex, however, under the surface, the poem uses religious imagery to seduce the woman into having sex. The speaker in this poem is a man, who is strategically trying to convince a woman to have premarital sex with him through the conceit based on a flea, however, the coy lady has thus far yielded to his lustful desires. The speaker’s argument has the form of logic, which contradicts to its outrageous content. In the first stanza, the speaker wants his beloved lady to observe a flea and not think of anything else as he delivers his argument. A flea bites the speaker and his beloved causing their blood to mix, which, according to the narrator, is the same as having sex and creating a child. Then, the speaker explains to the woman that this mixing of blood is neither sinful nor shameful, or a loss of the woman’s â€Å"maidenhead.† He also explains that they have conceived a child a through the mixing of blood in the flea. He starts this stanza with a caesura in the middle of the line. For example the first line, â€Å"Mark but this flea, and mark in this,† has a definite pause between the words â€Å"flea† and â€Å"and.† The speaker pauses because he is trying to form some kind logic out of his argument for himself. The oratorical tone of the poem is interwoven throughout all three stanzas with run-on lines, which makes the tempo of the poem se em as if the speaker was not trying to rhyme. Not having a conversational tone in the poem, would take away from some of the intimacy of the words. The reader has to read between the lines and stanzas, because actions take place in the blank spaces between them. We... ...e, lust, marriage, and even conceiving a child at the same level as the importance of a flea, which gives the poem an ironic and satirical tone. This poem showed the pure genius of John Donne. It is intriguing to look at, especially for the religious imagery and form. His analogy of killing a flea and having sex, allow him to simplify his argument, which makes this a work of genius. His word choice, form, and rhythm all coincided with his major theme. I cannot help but to find this poem hilarious, flirtatious, and less serious than his other works because love, lust, marriage, and conceiving children is nowhere in comparison to a flea or killing one. I think Donne knew this, but through his wit he managed to make the correlation. Works Cited Donne, John. â€Å"The Flea.† The Norton Anthology of British Literature. 7th ed. 2000.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Love And Lovability (wuthering :: essays research papers fc

Love and Lovability   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  “There is no character in Wuthering Heights who is completely lovable, who wins our sympathy completely.';(Bloom 99) Love, in one way or another is the force which makes people unlikable. In Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, people’s adoration for one another is the reason why no character is completely lovable. Receiving too much attention spoiled Catherine Earnshaw. Heathcliff was disliked because he had to grow up without a real family to love him. Finally, Hindley turned into a pitiful man because of the love that he lost. For some, affection can change people for the better, but for others love can be a poison for their souls.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Being the only daughter, Catherine was endeared by all those around her. The unwavering love that her family and friends gave her soured her disposition. While on a business trip, her father told his children that they could choose any gift that they wanted. Catherine, being a good rider, “chose a whip.';(40) When she learned that Heathcliff was the reason why she did not get her present, she responded “by grinning and spitting at the stupid little thing.';(41) Since she was used to getting everything that she wanted, she became haughty and had no respect for other people’s feelings.';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  “Why canst thou not always be a good lass, Cathy?';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  And she turned her face up to his, and laughed, and answered,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  “Why cannot you always be a good man, Father?'; (47) Even on his deathbed, Catherine chose to vex her father instead of comforting him. Catherine’s faults, which can be attributed to her rich upbringing, do not endear her to readers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Heathcliff, being the villain of the tale, is the most horrid character in Wuthering Heights. He manipulates everyone around him and has no regard for anyone but himself. His rotten nature can be traced back to his early years when he was a “poor, fatherless child.';(43) The lack of parental love and guidance made his life a difficult one. Heathcliff was an unwanted child who brought turmoil to a previously happy household. “So from the very beginning, he bred bad feelings in the house.';(42) Instead of rising from his poor position, he degenerated into an evil beast. When Catherine had begun to spend more time at Thrushcross Grange with the Linton’s, Heathcliff lost his self-respect and dignity. “If he were careless and uncared for before Catherine’s absence, he had been ten times more so since.

Great Expectations Essay

â€Å"Even though Pip has become snobbish by the end of Book One, Dickens still manages to make the reader like him†. Show how and why Pip has become something of a snob and what makes us retain our sympathy for him – Tom Beach In Great Expectations Dickens depicts Pip as having an increasingly snobbish character throughout Book One. He shows Pip to have an exaggerated respect for his social position and his growing hatred for the common life that he lives. The reader sees that Pip’s snobbishness is due to his desire to become a gentleman and his aspiration to be liked by Estella, from whom he adopts some of his snobbish attitudes. Even though it is clear to the reader that Pip has become somewhat of a snob, Dickens encourages the reader to still like Pip. He puts across that Pip is an orphan and that these snobbish feelings we see are just outward feelings. We learn that he was not proud of the snobbish character that he had become from the way he looks back on his life as an adult. These events make the reader feel sympathy for Pip, leading the reader to retain their criticism of him. In Book One of Great Expectations we see Dickens show Pip’s progressively snobbish character in many ways. After Pip’s first visit to Satis house and after falling for Estella we see Pips ambition to become a gentleman. We see that Pip blames Joe for being common, and for Joe not bringing him up as Pip thinks he should: â€Å"I wish Joe had been rather more genteelly brought up, and then I should have been so too. † We see Pip’s snobbish character developing as he blames Joe for being common; he is ‘ashamed of the dear good fellow’ and disappointed in him for being so ‘ignorant and common’. Pip is patronising towards Joe for something Joe has no control over. Pip feels he is able to comment on Joe’s social status because he does not belong to ‘[his]’ higher society and would be an embarrassment in front of Estella. This sudden change of attitude in Pip that wants to dismiss his family comes as a great shock to the reader. We see this to be a case of him being a snob. In Book One, one of the main points of Pips character that shows Pip to be something of a snob is his patronising attitude towards Mrs Joe. When Pip is going to see Miss Havisham with Joe and accompanied with Mrs Joe Pip feels embarrassed because they are trying to dress up to much: â€Å"I am not quite clear whether these articles were carried penitentially or ostentatiously. † Pip feels that his sister, Mrs Joe is very much overdressed, trying to look more ladylike that she really is. He is very patronising to her, as seen in the above quotation for simply being overdressed. Pip feels he is above her. Pip shows his growing snobbishness due to the fact that he is so willingly able to dismiss who he is and what he should become: I had believed in the forge as the glowing road to manhood and independence. Within a single year, all this was changed. Now, it was all coarse and common. We see Pip has lost faith in his normal life in the forge, dismissing the fact that that a life in the forge is what he is meant for. Pip will never like Joes’ trade and is sad when he is made apprentice to him: â€Å"And what could I possibly do then, but say I was enjoying myself – when I wasn’t. † Pip feels that the apprenticeship will tie him away from his ambition. He feels the forge is so ‘coarse and common’ that it will prevent him from becoming a gentleman. Pip feels that he is too good for the community that he lives in; he wants to get away from it: â€Å"It would be very disagreeable to be stared at by all the people here. † We see Pip deciding not to go into town in his new suit. He again feels that he is above all the people in the village, that ‘they would make such a business of it – such a coarse and common business’ that ‘[he] couldn’t bear [himself]’. This fact that he looks down on everybody in the village depicts him as a vain snob; he is not going to be a ‘rustic’ man anymore. In the closing stages of Book One we see Pip being very snobbish and capricious towards Biddy, a girl who looks after the house and has fallen in love with Pip: ‘Biddy’ I returned with some resentment, ‘you are so exceedingly quick that it’s difficult to keep up with you. ‘

Monday, September 16, 2019

Lessons of my school years

During my childhood my grandmother stressed the importance of education. She would say education can take you around the world, but only through hard work and dedication. She neglected to mention the amount of peer pressure, the cliques formed throughout school and sarcastic teachers whom we are at all times to respect, even If they are not respecting us. I started school In Chicago, IL, where I was amongst 25-30 Pre-K children. Eager my first day to show my teacher I knew my Abs's and ass's.I was taught my first lesson bout school, speak when spoken to or called upon. Nothing crushes a rear old worse than a teacher not interested in what you've so proudly learned. I felt as though my learning weren't important, as if I was Just there to take up space, I was another face amongst the crowd. I took this lesson and held on to it for the rest of my schooling until I learned otherwise. I never answered another question during group participation nor raised my hand to answer. By the time I was In 5th grade all I learned from Chicago public schools was a myth.Now In a rural community and a predominately African American school. I could not blend In with the scenery as my teacher Mrs.. Gates bombarded me one day with question after question, then math problem after math problem, until she came to the conclusion that I In fact knew my studies. I Just refused to be embarrassed by another uninterested teacher. She would then from that day, until the end of the school year, ask me first any question from all of the eight subjects we were being taught. I then understood the reality this teacher does care.She cared enough to see that somewhere along my schooling I had become a mute by default. By the time I had made it to eight grade I knew I was in for a ride. Mrs.. S Hardy, a teacher whom would seem to beat knowledge into you. Mrs.. Hardy never took I don't know for an answer or I can't. She empowered each and every one of her students with the power to learn. Explaining t hat your high school years define you as the person you'll become. Yes, there will be clubs, sports teams, and organizations you will Join, but, education Is still our key to the world.She taught me that a friend only goes as far as graduation and not to be a follower along the path but to make my own path through life. To always be an independent thinker, know what I want out of life not what others want for me. Then all my elementary school encouragement was over upon entering SST. Anne Community High in August of 1997. When people start high school they're usually so excited. They can't wait to experience everything that comes with being in high school, I mean who wouldn't? Everyone says that high school is the best four years of your life.I can't say they were my best years but I can say they were my most educational years, of course I wouldn't say that they weren't fun because they were. When I say educational, I mean Eve learned so much about myself and so much about life. I l earned what the words family, love, betrayal, law and life meant. All these events changed me, and I'm glad they happened because I wouldn't have learned all these lessons. My personality hasn't changed; I'm still a carefree girl, Just with a little more wisdom and a lot more strength.I first entered high school under the impression that this would Mrs.. Hardy, they would not leave me alone. I was amongst sophomores, Juniors, and seniors, a mere freshman, what did I know. I was not going to be able to blend in with the back ground but was an unwilling participant in the daily class activities. Mr.. Hubert, one of the most respected teachers in the school, sounded a lot like the guy from the clear eyes commercials. He explained to us that the upperclassmen were the from lack of studying or simply how he put it were chosen dummies who liked freshmen classes.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Philippine Poetry Essay

Even before the foreign invaders came to the Philippines, the Filipinos already had their own cultural traditions, folklore, mythologies and epics. There were substantial writings by early natives that Jesuit historian Fr. Pedro Chirino noted: â€Å"All of the islanders are much given to reading and writing. And there is hardly a man, much less a woman who did not read and write. † Epics are stories that are written in poetic form. They are usually described to display such tremendous vitality, color and imagination. Epic stories are tales about love and adventures of native heroes. The heroes’ adventures are usually about how they become endowed with powers from the gods, battle monsters, triumph over formidable armies, ride the wind, travel on flying shields and protect the earliest communities of the islands. Through the years, epic poems have grown and matured. Early historians like Padre Colin, Joaquin Martinez de Zuniga and Antonio Pigafetta have all attested to the existence of these epics. At the arrival of Don Miguel Lopez de Legaspi in 1565, it was reported, the natives presented him with a dramatic play. During festivities and special occasions, epic poems and songs area performed. Most often, these epic poems (folk epics or ethno-epics) were titled after the names of the hero involved, except for some which carry traditional titles like the Kalinga Ulalim; the Sulod Hinilawod; the Maranao Darangan; or the Bicol Ibalon. Old Time History, as stories about folk heroes of long ago are referred to, is used to study the lifestyle and beliefs of the people of that time. They were also referred to as lost, because they were soon forgotten by natives influenced heavily by Spanish and â€Å"western† colonization. It has been said that during the early days of the Spanish intrusions, the priests destroyed all existing records of paganism, as well as all forms of writing and art work regarding the ancient Philippine folk heroes. This has been proven to be false due to the fact that the early epic poetry is still known and used at present as reference in studies of the past especially the lifestyle, love and aspirations of the early Filipinos. This valuable inheritance from the past must be preserved for this can be used as a proof for national identity. It is from these that a Filipino can feel heroic, truly pulsating with splendor of a magnificent and authentic cultural force. Being composed of thousands of islands, it is no wonder that the country is rich in culture and tradition with various influences in different parts of the nation. As a result, the Philippines has become a melting pot of nations and is a source of a rich variety of culture and stories. The following are some examples of the epic poetry found in the country.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Economic system Essay

In our present time , there are many speculation spoken by different people, regarding the implementation of the new Curriculum , K to 12. There are many question still hanging on ,Is it the solution to our poverty , underemployment and unemployment.? Does K to 12 curriculum basically enhance our students knowledge? Does this curriculum eliminates at lessen poverty in our country. Our DepEd Secretary, Bro. Armin A. Luistro, FSC, starting whenhe became an Education Secretary, He is trying to change the traditional way of teaching, trying to resolve different problem, control and motivates the teachers, students , parents and government officials to cooperate in order to help our students to be competitive enough. In his Declaration of State of Philippine Education, he emphasize the trend and issues in Education System in: a. Philippine Education is under in Chronic Illness b. Regression in Access c. Bureaucratic Melee d. Appropriations allotted I n Education e. On the need of Reform f. The Join Forces of 3 Agencies in Government. The DOLE, TESDA, and CHED. g. The Idea of EFA 2015 and Millennium Development Goals, 1. The Philippine Education is under in chronic illness He said that our country is under the chronic illness , it is because the system in our country is suffering from different crisis, not only come from economic problem, but most probably in political system. In this country, Our governmentalways change our curriculum from time to time, for them we must faced the reality and we must adapt the changes but the  mere fact is , they don’t even support that particular in terms of facilities, tools, books and other school materials, that’s why our curriculum is only a Trial-Error set up. Inother aspects the reason why we still in the last in terms of Education it is because of corruption and political problems. 2. Regression in Access The main problem in our country is the lengthof Basic Education in Elementary and Secondary, this is only 10 years, unlike to other country which is 12 years. This is the reason why Filipino did not get the appropriate job on other country, 3. Bureaucratic Melee In this case, we can say that the cultural aspects of the society are the big problem. Despite of financial and economic crisis happen in our country, they questioned some people or other non –government organizations if school receive donations, For them it is a form of corruption ,but the reality is some government officials is the one who is the corrupt one. We must face the reality that government funds is not sufficient to support different schools that’s why we need support from other agencies. 4. Appropriations for Education Department of Budget and Management or DBM allocatesfund for a certain school whether it has autonomy or not. These budgets were divided depends on the numbers of enrollees per school. Government also allocates fund for the Teachers tools, equipments, lesson plan, and classrecords , salaries and bonuses and incentives. Education is free, according to the Deped Memorandum. They allocated fundsfor Education but the big problem is, the higher ranking person did not distributed that funds to different divisions, instead of they corrupt that funds. That’s why DepEdis number2 in Corruption 5. On the Need for Reform Our Educationsystem needs a reformation, in order to make our graduates be competitive enough. Reform will start on the top down to the lower ranking position. Reformation willlead us tothe better world, better society and better graduates. Reformation not only in Educational system but also in the society, most especially in our government presently. Reform in policies, avoid corruption, because new ideas, new curriculum, and helpus tobuild mind of a graduates professionally growth.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Causes of the decline of the Devirme System Term Paper

Causes of the decline of the Devirme System - Term Paper Example The non-Muslim population in the empire and outside the empire therefore bore the blunt of the Ottoman rule, since they were targeted by the Sultan as well as other traders who used to offer them as slaves instead of paying taxes to the Sultan, or either as a gift to the Sultan. The youth offered for enslavement could either become military personnel in the kingdom, while others could be educated and trained to joining the janissaries in the Harem. This was the Sultan’s home or center of governing where all the activities of the Sultan occupied. The Devshirme system however collapsed later, due to many external influences, such as the modernization from the external world that crept into the Ottoman Empire before its collapse, and due to the inclusion of many foreigners in the Palace and in the empire as a whole. One factor that led to the collapse of the Devshirme system could be the conversion of many of the non-Muslims in the kingdom, into Islamic religion. Duiker and Spielvogel (337) explained that as a result of hostilities that was directed to the non Muslim inhabitants of the empire, many parents saw it necessary to convert to Islamic religion to save their families from being abducted by the powerful men who could afterwards offer them as gifts to the Sultan. Many of such youths had died in the wars, since they were trained and used for military purposes by the Sultan. It was therefore very disheartening and painful for parents to learn of their children’s death in the military activities. To avoid this, a good number of non Muslims as Duiker and Spielvogel (339) explained converted into Islamic religion. Since it was cultural not abduct the Islam professing inhabitants in the Devshirme practices, it therefore translated into declining of the possible abductees in the kingdom. The practice therefore faded gradually as the people converted into Islam, until it ended by the collapse of the Ottoman rule. In the

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Composition of acid rain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Composition of acid rain - Essay Example Acid rain is the "atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as acidified fog and cloud water".It also refers to precipitation that is much more acidic than natural, unpolluted rain."The pH scale is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution and is determined by the hydrogen ion (H+) content" ("Measuring Acid Rain"). This scale ranges from 0 to 14, moving from strongly acid to strongly alkaline, respectively, with the point 7 representing neutral."The pH scale is logarithmic rather than linear". Hence, there is a tenfold increase in acidity with each pH point. Natural rain is mildly acidic because of the presence of carbon dioxide present in atmospheric moisture, which react together to form weak carbonic acid (H2CO3):H2CO3 is a weak acid and so it partially dissociates to release H+ (aq), resulting in the reduction of pH of the system. This partial ionization occurs in equilibrium, since carbonic acid on ly ionizes 1.7% ("Sources of Acid Rain"):The two dominant acids found in acid rain are sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3). These acids are created from the primary pollutants sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides such as NO2. These pollutants are usually carried over long distances from their primary source, where they finally result in acid rain. The chemistry of both these pollutants from this source to the creation of acid rain is shown below:Sulfur dioxide is mainly released into the atmosphere through combustion of fossil fuels. The world over, sulfur dioxide is also released by volcanoes and also by the oxidation of sulfur gases released by the decomposition of plants. This natural sulfur dioxide is released very high into the atmosphere, and hence the concentration of the gas is very minimal in unpolluted air. But the sulfur dioxide produced from the combustion of fossil fuels, for example in electric power plants and mined coal containing 1 to 5% sulfur, is releas ed into the ground level air. The concentration of sulfur dioxide in the ground level air is, thus, quite high in certain areas, particularly in the northern hemisphere. This contributes to acid rain over large areas. 2. Nitrogen monoxide is produced as a byproduct of the burning of gasoline in car engines using air as the source of oxygen. The nitrogen present in air, when exposed to high temperatures inside car engines, is converted into the pollutant nitrogen monoxide (NO). A series of secondary reactions in the presence of sunlight produces nitrogen dioxide oxide and ground level ozone, which further precipitate acid rain reactions. NO2 (g) + O3 (g) NO3 (g) + O2 (g) The gaseous NO3 then combines with any reactive hydrogen donor (X) in the atmosphere, producing aqueous nitric acid (HNO3):

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Response paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 25

Response paper - Essay Example The readings highlight various plights that citizens in war-torn regions go through and the various freedoms denied by their governments for failing to uphold human right concerns. The readings are is important in understanding and emphasizing the need for other developing nations to step up and calm the situation. One can agree with the deliberations and conclusion drawn by the then US president Bush that the killing was, in fact, a massacre in one of the readings. The case of various human rights violations is not knew in the public domain. The cases are largely due to government negligence or failure to effectively use the information gathered by intelligence. Through analysis, the recent terrorism killings in Kenya amplify these concerns. In my view very human been irrespective of race, ethnic, religious or political affiliation deserves the right to be protected by the government and live in a secure nation. Although the readings have to deal much with the plight in many develop ing nations, they are not spared either when it comes to such concerns. There have been many incidences that the citizens particularly in Europe have laid blame on government security agencies for various extradition killing. Thus, the readings offer more knowledge human rights concern across the globe. Nonetheless, one can argue that the human rights and protection has improved in recent past. As exemplified in the readings, various aspects such globalization has been a big contributor to this significant transformation in human rights protection (Howard-Hassmann, 56). Thorough critical analysis, globalization has opened the world today and coupled with enhanced technology, the world is more aware of the concerns of citizens around them. It’s been a common knowledge that globalization avail additional opportunities not just for states and societies, likewise for the entire international order (Andrew Hurrell, 297).

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Effectiveness of reverse gender role-play exercises in tackling trauma Research Paper

Effectiveness of reverse gender role-play exercises in tackling trauma adaptation in children witnessing domestic violence - Research Paper Example The children who become witnesses to this violence from an early age have been found to have many adjustment problems even in their adult lives (Galloway, 2005). Here, the term, ‘witnessing violence’ means, â€Å"being within range of violence and seeing it occur† (Edleson, 1999, p.841). When a child has this kind of experience, he/she may or may not have trauma adjustment problems in current and/or future life. But the research so far has shown that a considerable percentage of this group have such problems. Objective and background As researchers like Galloway (2005), Hague and Malos (1993), and Edleson (1999) have put it, a considerable percentage of children witnesses to domestic violence are found to have trauma adaptation problems. But much investigation has not been made into what could be the role of the gender of such children in relation with their trauma adaptation capabilities. It is in this context that this research envisages exploring what the role of gender flexibility is, in the process of adaptation to trauma by children who are witnesses to domestic violence. The purpose of this study is also to develop further insight into the methods of imparting gender flexibility for handling child trauma and adaptation issues, which may in turn be of help to mental health professionals who deal with this target group. It is hypothesized in this research that training in gender flexibility imparted through reverse gender role-play exercises in the form of skits will help children who are witnesses of domestic violence to better adapt to their trauma. Here, what is meant by reverse gender role-play is that girls are made to the play the roles of men and boys are made to play the roles of women in performance skits practiced as part of group therapy. Review of Literature One major study related to this topic was carried out by Catina Galloway (2005), who observed, if a child who is witnessing domestic violence has access to â€Å"tools from both ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’, then the child is found to have better possibility of adaptation to trauma (p.3). Galloway (2005) has called such a child, â€Å"gender-flexible† (p.3). By reverse argument, Galloway (2005) has also theorized, â€Å"a simple feminine response or masculine response to trauma inhibits or prevents adaptation† (p.3). Such an inference will lead to the assumption that the normal tools that usually children possess by way of the conventional gender training that they get in average families are not sufficient to deal with their domestic violence related trauma situation. And it will have to be concluded that only children who are either trained to use both masculine and feminine tools or specially equipped children who naturally know how to handle both these tools can hope to adapt to the situation. Jaffe, Wolfe and Wilson (1990, p.27) and Peled and Davis (1995, p.5) have opined that the reactions of childre n to domestic violence, among many other factors, may vary based on their gender as well. Jaffe, Wolf and Wilson (1990) have also found out that being witness to domestic violence, a boy often grows up to believe that violence is masculine behavior and to become himself a wife batterer, while a girl often grows up to believe that she is naturally destined to suffer violence from men and to become herself a silent victim to similar violence (p.16). Methodology The methodology adopted for this research will be participant observation (Tischler, 2010, p.35). Though participant observation has been considered as highly subjective, it has also been observed, â€Å"participant observation generates more inside information† (Kendall, 2010, p.58). As the individuals under study here are

Monday, September 9, 2019

Logitech Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Logitech - Essay Example The company's retail sales and marketing activities are classified into three geographical divisions namely Americas (including North and South America), Europe-Middle East-Africa, and Asia Pacific. In order to minimize production costs and take advantage of the other benefits of business process outsourcing, it has set up its manufacturing plant in Suzhou, China in 1994. Other productions are outsourced from different countries in Asia. During the fiscal year 2007, it reports revenue of $2.06 million and net income of $.229 million (Logitech Annual Report 2007). The mission statement of Logitech is communicated as follows: "Logitech brings to market tools that enrich the interface between people and information" (Logitech Company Profile 2008) This emphasizes the business organization's commitment in focusing on computer peripherals. However, it should be noted that it did not limit itself to its current lines indicating its openness to changes and willingness to respond to emerging consumer needs. The company' strategic intent can be seen through its growth outlook presented in its 2007 Annual Report. Logitech communicates its major strategy of innovation in order to sustain steady growth and development. The company's goal is to further develop new products and improve existing ones in order to maximize consumers' comfort. Also, the business organization is keen on focusing into growth markets in order to drive revenue. c. Problem Identification The United States is one of the major markets of Logitech. Even though it cannot be possibly identified how much share this market has in the company's revenue, it should be noted that the forecasted economic recession in US will adversely reflect in the company's operation. Logitech thus, needs to take this into in order for it to continue its highly profitable operation. II. Environmental Analysis a. External Environmental Analysis In general, the operation of Logitech is dependent in its ability to introduce innovative products in the market noting that the information technology market is subject to fast product obsolescence. Since the company has global coverage, it is also exposed to the fluctuations in the exchange rates. The weakening of the dollar due to the economic recession makes its income in the United States lower when expressed in Swiss franc. The industry environment of Logitech can be assessed through the use Porter's Five Forces model. Buyers. The evolution of a hypercompetitive business environment heightens the bargaining power of consumers. It should be noted that sales are directly affected by consumer demand. Thus, consumer needs should properly be identified and products should be created to best respond to these needs. Suppliers. Supplier power is also high in the market where Logitech

Sunday, September 8, 2019

What do the French, Italian and British economies tell us about the Essay

What do the French, Italian and British economies tell us about the extent to which there has been a convergence in the character of business systems across Europe - Essay Example The markets in Western Europe have been strong, active and stable for quite a long time.The countries in Central and Eastern Europe have to catch up. The introduction of Euros as common currency has already begun the gravitation process towards strengthening of the whole European market.The convergence in business systems across Europe has been the natural consequence of the European Union and its predecessors. There has never been a time in history when business convergence in Europe was as steadfast and purposeful as in the present. The factors responsible for this phenomenon are manifold. Some factors like the establishment of European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1959, followed by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1961, and the current European Union (EU) are visible, and there are others such as the impact of globalization on Europe whose full impact have yet to be assessed holistically.Since the formation of the European Union, the European nations have diverted thei r resources and exports from the global market to the European market. Britain's example of trade shift from United States to the European Union is significant. Also, the effort to converge educational facilities in Europe is a welcome development. (European Convergence Reaches Higher Education).France, Italy and Britain are among the top and largest economies in the world. Over 50% of Britain's exports is now concentrated within EU. Also, in the cases of France and Italy, major business partners constitute the EU nations and USA. (Background Notes: France and Italy). In a broader context, the business systems the world over have converged significantly as a result of globalization and the effects of mergers and acquisitions. The markets in Western Europe have been strong, active and stable for quite a long time. However, the countries in Central and Eastern Europe have to catch up. The introduction of Euros as common currency has already begun the gravitation process towards strengthening of the whole European market. (Claire Smith). 3. Why Convergence The economies of Europe are laden with the twin responsibilities of addressing the needs of their own nation at home and also with their obligations to the EU. Agriculture, industry, economy, travel, methodologies, and every other aspect of the way things are done are traded within the EU as first preference. Moreover, innovation and advanced research are the key cornerstones. (President Chirac's wide-ranging interview). However, the industry has shifted focus on value more than competition in order to survive. Large corporations that were once avowed rivals merge or acquire the other. Behemoths like Corus were taken over by outside players like the Tatas of India. They read the clear message on the wall. Deliver or disappear! The market of the day is highly oriented towards value and innovations. The consumer has become extremely aware of the innovative nature of some industries like telecommunications and has high expectations. The telecom and information industries have done their bit by introducing new devices and schemes every now and then further whetting the consumer's

The Birthright and the Human Storm (example of a title) Essay - 1

The Birthright and the Human Storm (example of a title) - Essay Example According to which a true woman must hold four cardinal virtues that are: domesticity, submissiveness, piety and purity. Women were not allowed to have sex with any other men except their husband, however, this restriction does not imply on men. It was considered as a sin if a woman gets involved with any other men. The sexual rights of women were also negligible in the 19th century. They can only have sex when their husbands wanted to have and were not allowed to show up their temptation. Followed by the Victorian age the gilded age was the era of growth and prosperity. In this era the women were not content with the cult of domesticity. Most women went to colleges to earn higher education and started to serve the society. Bobinot and his son Bibi were present at Friedheimers store when they sensed the emergence of a violent storm. Bobinot decided to stay at the store till the storm is gone. Calixta the wife of Bobinot, did not even notice the arrival of storm and thunder. When it turned much darker, Calixta went to close the door, there she found her ex-boyfriend Alcee and invited him in her home due to worsening weather condition. While staying at Calixta’s house Alcee made her recall all the sweet memories of their love and the passion they used to share. Flowing into the memories Calixta and Alcee forget about everything and get sexually involved reviving the old love and passion they had. In the meantime the author asserts that the storm gets also over. Bobinot and Bibi returned from the store after the weather gets settled. After coming back from Calixta’s place Alcee writes a letter to his wife suggesting her to stay in Biloxi as long as she wants. Clarisse felt good and free afte r receiving the letter. The author ends the story with a punch line, "So the storm passed and everyone was happy (Chopin 110)." The

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Acquisition is a High Risky Strategy Essay Example for Free

Acquisition is a High Risky Strategy Essay In the literature, several motives for takeovers have been identified. One is the desire for synergy. That is, similarities or complementarities between the acquiring and target firms are expected to result in the combined value of the enterprises exceeding their worth as separate firms (Collis and Montgomery, 1998). A second motive involves the expectation that acquirers can extract value because target companies have been managed inefficiently (Varaiya, 1987). A third motive is attributed to managerial hubris the notion that senior executives, in overestimating their own abilities, acquire companies they believe could be managed more profitably under their control. Agency theory motive is the anticipation that firm expansion will positively impact the compensation of top managers since there tends to be a direct relation between firm size and executive pay. Contemporary specialists contend that managerial ownership incentives may be expected to have divergent impacts on corporate strategy and firm value. This premise has been recognized in previous studies. For instance, Stulz (1988) has examined the ownership of managers of target companies and has proposed that the relationship between that ownership and the value of target firms may initially be positive and then subsequently become negative with rising insider ownership. Moreover, Shivdasani (1993) empirically shows that the relationship of the ownership structure of target companies with the value of hostile bids is not uniformly positive. McConnell and Servaes (1990) have likewise analyzed the relationship of equity ownership among corporate insiders and Tobins q. Their results demonstrate a non-monotonic relation between Tobins q and insider equity stakes. Wright et al. (1996: 451) have shown a non-linear relationship between insider ownership and corporate strategy related to firm risk taking. Ownership Incentives and Changes in Company Risk Motivating Acquisitions An agency-theoretic motive for acquisitions has been used to explain managerial preferences for risk-reducing corporate strategies (Wright et al., 1996). The implication is that both principals and agents prefer acquiring target companies with higher rather than lower returns. In that, shareholders and managers have congruent interests. The interests, however, diverge in terms of risk considerations associated with acquisitions. Because shareholders possess diversified portfolios, they may only be concerned with systematic risk and be indifferent to the total variance of returns associated with a takeover. Senior managers may alternatively prefer risk-reducing corporate strategies, unless they are granted ownership incentives. That is because they can not diversify their human capital invested in the firm. In the literature, it has been argued that agency costs may be reduced as managerial ownership incentives rise. The reason is that, as ownership incentives rise, the financial interests of insiders and shareholders will begin to converge. Analysts conjecture, however, that such incentives may not consistently provide senior executives the motivation to lessen the agency costs associated with an acquisition strategy. Inherent is the presumption that the nature of executive wealth portfolios will differently influence their attitudes toward corporate strategy. The personal wealth portfolios of top managers are comprised of their ownership of shares/options in the firm, the income produced from their employment, and assets unrelated to the firm. Presumably, as senior executives increase their equity stakes in the enterprise, their personal wealth portfolios become correspondingly less diversified. Although stockholders can diversify their wealth portfolios, top executives have less flexibility if they own substantial shares in the firms they manage. Hence, if a significant portion of managers wealth is concentrated in one investment, then they may find it prudent to diversify their firms via risk-reducing acquisitions. In the related literature, however, takeovers and risk taking have been approached differently from the described approach. Amihud and Lev (1999) have contended that insiders employment income is significantly related to the firms performance. Thus, managers are confronted with risks associated with their income if the maintenance of that income is dependent on achieving predetermined performance targets. Reasonably, in the event of either corporate underperformance or firm failure, CEOs not only may lose their current employment income but also may seriously suffer in the managerial labor market, since their future earnings potential with other enterprises may be lowered. Hence, the risk of executives employment income is impacted by the firms risk. The ramification of Amihud and Levs (1999) contentions is that top managers will tend to lower firm risk, and therefore their own employment risk, by acquiring companies that contribute to stabilizing of the firms income, even if shareho lder wealth is adversely affected. Consistent with the implications of Amihud and Levs arguments, Agrawal and Mandelker (1987) have similarly suggested that managers with negligible ownership stakes may adopt risk-reducing corporate strategies because such strategies may well serve their own personal interests. With ownership incentives, however, managers may be more likely to acquire risk-enhancing target companies, in line with the requirement of wealth maximization for shareholders. The notion that at negligible managerial ownership levels, detrimental risk-reducing acquisition strategies may be emphasized, but with increasing ownership incentive levels, beneficial risk-enhancing acquisitions may be more prevalent is also suggested in other works (Grossman and Hoskisson, 1998). The conclusion of these investigations is that the relationship between insider ownership and risk enhancing, worthy corporate acquisitions is linear and positive. Some experts assert that CEOs personal wealth concentration will induce senior managers to undertake risk-reducing firm strategies. Portfolio theorys expectation suggests that investors or owner-managers may desire to diversify their personal wealth portfolios. For instance, Markowitz (1952: 89) has asserted that investors may wish to diversify across industries because firms in different industries. . . have lower covariances than firms within an industry. Moreover, as argued by Sharpe (1964: 441), diversification enables the investor to escape all but the risk resulting from swings in economic activity. Consequently, managers with substantial equity investments in the firm may diversify the firm via risk-reducing acquisitions in order to diversify their own personal wealth portfolios. Because they may be especially concerned with risk-reducing acquisitions, however, their corporate strategies may not enhance firm value through takeovers, although managerial intention may be to boos t corporate value. The above discussion is compatible with complementary arguments that suggest that insiders may acquire non-value-maximizing target companies although their intentions may be to enhance returns to shareholders. For instance, according to the synergy view, while takeovers may be motivated by an ex-ante concern for increasing corporate value, many such acquisitions are not associated with an increase in firm value. Alternatively, according to the hubris hypothesis, even though insiders may intend to acquire targets that they believe could be managed more profitably under their control, such acquisitions are not ordinarily related to higher profitability. If acquisitions which are undertaken primarily with insider expectations that they will financially benefit owners do not realize higher performance, then those acquisitions which are primarily motivated by a risk-reducing desire may likewise not be associated with beneficial outcomes for owners. Additionally, it can be argued that shareholders can more efficiently diversify their own portfolios, making it unnecessary for managers to diversify the firm in order to achieve portfolio diversification for shareholders. Risk Associated with HRM practices in International Acquisitions There are a number of reasons why the HRM policies and practices of multinational corporations (MNCs) and cross-border acquisitions are likely to be different from those found in domestic firms (Dowling, Schuler and Welch, 1993). For one, the difference in geographical spread means that acquisitions must normally engage in a number of HR activities that are not needed in domestic firms such as providing relocation and orientation assistance to expatriates, administering international job rotation programmes, and dealing with international union activity. Second, as Dowling (1988) points out, the personnel policies and practices of MNCs are likely to be more complex and diverse. For instance, complex salary and income taxation issues are likely to arise in acquisitions because their pay policies and practices have to be administered to many different groups of subsidiaries and employees, located in different countries. Managing this diversity may generate a number of co-ordination and communication problems that do not arise in domestic firms. In recognition of these difficulties, most large international companies retain the services of a major accounting firm to ensure there is no tax incentive or disincentive associated with a particular international assignment. Finally, there are more stakeholders that influence the HRM policies and practices of international firms than those of domestic firms. The major stakeholders in private organizations are the shareholders and the employees. But one could also think of unions, consumer organizations and other pressure groups. These pressure groups also exist in domestic firms, but they often put more pressure on foreign than on local companies. This probably means that international companies need to be more risk averse and concerned with the social and political environment than domestic firms. Acquisitions and HRM Practices: Evidence from Japan, the US, and Europe In contemporary context, international human resource management faces important challenges, and this trend characterizes many Japanese, US and European acquisitions.   From the critical point of view, Japanese companies experience more problems associated with international human resource management than companies from the US and Europe (Shibuya, 2000). Lack of home-country personnel sufficient international manage ­ment skills has been widely recognized in literature as the most difficult problem facing Japanese compa ­nies and simultaneously one of the most significant of US and European acquisitions as well. The statement implies that cultivating such skills is difficult and that they are relatively rare among businessmen in any country. Japanese companies may be particularly prone to this problem due to their heavy use of home-country nationals in overseas management positions. European and Japanese acquisitions also experience the lack of home country personnel who want to work abroad, while it is less of an impediment for the US companies. In the US acquisitions expatriates often experience reentry difficulties (e.g., career disruption) when re ­turning to the home country: This problem was the one most often cited by US firms.   Today Japanese corporations report the relatively lower incidence of expatriate reentry diffi ­culties, and it is surprising given the vivid accounts of such problems at Japanese firms by White (1988) and Umezawa (1990). However, the more active role of the Japanese person ­nel department in coordinating career paths, the tradition of semi ­annual musical-chair-like personnel shuffles (jinji idoh), and the continu ­ing efforts of Japanese stationed overseas to maintain close contact with headquarters might underlie the lower level of difficulties in this area for Japanese firms (Inohara, 2001). In contrast, the decentralized structures of many US and European firms may serve to isolate expatriates from their home-country headquarters, making reentry more problematic. Also, recent downsiz ­ing at US and European firms may reduce the number of appropriate management positions for expatriates to return to, or may sever expatri ­ates relationships with colleagues and mentors at headquarters. Furthermore, within the context of the lifetime employment system, individ ­ual Japanese employees have little to gain by voicing reentry concerns to personnel managers. In turn, personnel managers need not pay a great deal of attention to reentry problems because they will usually not result in a resignation. In western firms, reentry problems need to be taken more seriously by personnel managers because they frequently result in the loss of a valued employee. A further possible explanation for the higher incidence of expatriate reentry problems in western multinationals is the greater tendency of those companies to implement a policy of transferring local nationals to headquarters or other international operations. Under such a policy, the definition of expatriate expands beyond home-country nationals to en ­compass local nationals who transfer outside their home countries. It may even be that local nationals who return to a local operation after working at headquarters or other international operations may have their own special varieties of reentry problems. Literature on international human resource practices in Japan, the US and Europe suggest that the major strategic difficulty for the MNCs is to attract high-caliber local nationals to work for the company. In general, acquisitions may face greater challenges in hiring high-caliber local employees than do domestic firms due to lack of name recognition and fewer relationships with educators or others who might recommend candidates. However, researchers suggest that this issue is significantly more difficult for Japanese than for US and European multinationals. When asked to describe problems encoun ­tered in establishing their US affiliates, 39.5% of the respondents to a Japan Society survey cited finding qualified American managers to work in the affiliate and 30.8% cited hiring a qualified workforce (Bob ; SRI, 2001). Similarly, a survey of Japanese companies operating in the US conducted by a human resource consulting firm found that 35% felt recruiting personnel to be very difficult or extremely difficult, and 56% felt it to be difficult (The Wyatt Company, 1999). In addition to mentioned problem, Japanese acquisition encounter high local employee turnover, which is significantly more prob ­lematic for them due to the near-total absence of turnover to which they are accustomed in Japan. The US, European and Japanese companies admit very rarely that they encounter local legal challenges to their personnel policies. However, in regard to Japanese acquisitions large   amount of press coverage has been given to lawsuits against Japanese companies in the United States and a Japanese Ministry of Labor Survey in which 57% of the 331 respondents indicated that they were facing potential equal employ ­ment opportunity-related lawsuits in the United States (Shibuya, 2000). Conclusion This research investigates whether corporate acquisitions with shared technological resources or participation in similar product markets realize superior economic returns in comparison with unrelated acquisitions. The rationale for superior economic performance in related acquisitions derives from the synergies that are expected through a combination of supplementary or complementary resources. It is clear from the results of this research that acquired firms in related acquisitions have higher returns than acquired firms in unrelated acqui ­sitions. This implies that the related acquired firm benefits more from the acquirer than the unrelated acquired firm. The higher returns for the related acquired firms suggest that the combination with the acquirer’s resources has higher value implications than the combination of two unrelated firms. This is supported by the higher total wealth gains which were observed in related acquisitions. I did however, in the case of acquiring firms, find that the abnormal returns directly attributable to the acquisition transaction are not significant. There are reasons to believe that the announcement effects of the transaction on the returns to acquirers are less easily detected than for target firms. First, an acquisition by a firm affects only part of its businesses, while affecting all the assets (in control-oriented acqui ­sitions) of the target firm. Thus the measurability of effects on acquirers is attenuated. Second, if an acquisition is one event in a series of implicit moves constituting a diversification program, its individual effect as a market signal would be mitigated. It is also likely that the theoretical argument which postulates that related acquisitions create wealth for acquirers may be underspecified. Relatedness is often multifaceted, suggesting that the resources of the target firm may be of value to many firms, thus increasing the relative bargaining power of the target vis-a-vis the potential buyers. Even in the absence of explicit competition for the target (multiple bidding), the premiums paid for control are a substantial fraction of the total gains available from the transaction. For managers, some implications from the research can be offered. First, it seems quite clear from the data that a firm seeking to be acquired will realize higher returns if it is sold to a related than an unrelated firm. This counsel is consistent with the view that the market recognizes synergistic combinations and values them accordingly. Second, managers in acquiring firms may be advised to scrutinize carefully the expected gains in related and unrelated acquisitions. For managers the issue of concern is not whether or not a given kind of acquisition creates a significant total amount of wealth, but what percentage of that wealth they can expect to accrue to their firms. Thus, although acquisitions involving related technologies or product market yield higher total gains, pricing mechanisms in the market for corporate acquisitions reflect the gains primarily on the target company. Interpreting these results conservatively, one may offer the argument that expected gains for acquiring firms are competed away in the bidding process, with stockholders of target firms obtaining high proportions of the gains. On a pragmatic level this research underscores the need to combine what may be called the theoretical with the practical. In the case of acquisitions, pragmatic issues like implicit and explicit competition for a target firm alter the theoretical expectations of gains from an acquisition transaction. Further efforts to clarify these issues theoretically and empirically will increase our understanding of these important phenomena. Bibliography Sharpe WF. 1964. Capital asset prices: a theory of market equilibrium under conditions of risk. Journal of Finance 19: 425-442 Markowitz H. 1952. Portfolio selections. Journal of Finance 7: 77-91 Grossman W, Hoskisson R. 1998. CEO pay at the crossroads of Wall Street and Main: toward the strategic design of executive compensation. Academy of Management Executive 12: 43-57 Amihud Y, Lev B. 1999. Does corporate ownership structure affect its strategy towards diversification? Strategic Management Journal 20(11): 1063-1069 Agrawal A, Mandelker G. 1987. Managerial incentives and corporate investment and financing decisions. Journal of Finance 42: 823-837 Wright P, Ferris S, Sarin A, Awasthi V. 1996. The impact of corporate insider, blockholder, and institutional equity ownership on firm risk-taking. Academy of Management Journal 39: 441-463 McConnell JJ, Servaes H. 1990. Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value. Journal of Financial Economics 27: 595-612. Shivdasani A. 1993. Board composition, ownership structure, and hostile takeovers. Journal of Accounting and Economics 16: 167-198 Stulz RM. 1988. Managerial control of voting rights: financing policies and the market for corporate control. Journal of Financial Economics 20: 25-54 Varaiya N. 1987. Determinants of premiums in acquisition transactions. Managerial and Decision Economics 14: 175-184 Collis D, Montgomery C. 1998. Creating corporate advantage. Harvard Business Review 76(3): 71-83 White, M. 1988. The Japanese overseas: Can they go home again? New York: The Free Press. Bob, D., ; SRI International. 2001. Japanese companies in American communities. New York: The Japan Society.