Wednesday, November 27, 2019

George Orwell and Arthur Miller essays

George Orwell and Arthur Miller essays Arthur Miller and George Orwells writings are perceptive of Biblical views concerning social flaws and political corruption. The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is based on the McCarthy trials, which caused the errors of the society to be revealed. These trials were a difficult time in America. Many innocent people were persecuted because they did not conform to the harshness of society. In Animal Farm, George Orwell figuratively uses symbolism to display the dominating politics in Russia at that time. Animal Farm is filled with examples of political corruption. One example is when the animals over throw the owner of the farm so they can set up their own government. They wish to set up a communist government. Napoleon and Snowball, the competing leaders of Animal Farm, both fight for the controlling position, but Snowball proves to be less powerful and falls under the rule of Napoleon. Within this government are many flaws. A communist government is one that has only one absolute ruler. A problem naturally occurs in society when one person is allowed too much power. In Animal Farm, Napoleon makes himself the sole ruler. Orwell displays Napoleon so well that the reader understands his character on a literal level (Meyers 131). The satiric allegory Orwell uses to subtlely describe communist Russia is evident in every detail (Meyers 133). At the beginning of the book, Major gives a speech expository of orthodox Marxism. Napoleon represents Stalin and Snowball symbolizes Trotsky, beca use of their opposite personalities and beliefs (Meyers 136). The major events in Russias history described in Animal Farm are Stalins forced collectivization, the Great Purge Trials, and the diplomacy with Germany that ended with Hitlers invasion in 1941 (Meyers 139). Napoleon is deceived when Frederick gives him forged bank notes, which represent the Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact of August 1939 (Meyers 141). The conf ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

W. E. B. Du BoisThe Souls of Black Folk(1903) Essays - Free Essays

W. E. B. Du Bois'The Souls of Black Folk(1903) Essays - Free Essays W. E. B. Du Bois'The Souls of Black Folk(1903) is a seminal work in African American literature and an American classic. In this work Du Bois proposes that "the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line." His concepts of life behind the veil of race and the resulting "double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others," have become touchstones for thinking about race in America. In addition to these enduring concepts,Soulsoffers an assessment of the progress of the race, the obstacles to that progress, and the possibilities for future progress as the nation entered the twentieth century. Du Bois examines the years immediately following the Civil War and, in particular, the Freedmen's Bureau's role in Reconstruction. The Bureau's failures were due not only to southern opposition and "national neglect," but also to mismanagement and courts that were biased "in favor of black litigants." The Bureau did have successes as we ll, and its most important contribution to progress was the founding of African American schools. Since the end of Reconstruction in 1876, Du Bois claims that the most significant event in African American history has been the rise of the educator, Booker T. Washington, to the role of spokesman for the race. Du Bois argues that Washington's approach to race relations is counterproductive to the long-term progress of the race. Washington's acceptance of segregation and his emphasis on material progress represent an "old attitude of adjustment and submission." Du Bois asserts that this policy has damaged African Americans by contributing to the loss of the vote, the loss of civil status, and the loss of aid for institutions of higher education. Du Bois insists that "the right to vote," "civic equality," and "the education of youth according to ability" are essential for African American progress. Du Bois relates his experiences as a schoolteacher in rural Tennessee, and then he turns his attention to a critique of American materialism in the rising city of Atlanta where the single-minded attention to gaining wealth threatens to replace all other considerations. In terms of education, African Americans should not be taught merely to earn money. Rather, Du Bois argues there should be a balance between the "standards of lower training" and the "standards of human culture and lofty ideals of life." In effect, the African American college should train the "Talented Tenth" who can in turn contribute to lower education and also act as liaisons in improving race relations. Du Bois returns to an examination of rural African American life with a presentation of Dougherty County, Georgia as representative of life in the southern Black Belt. He presents the history and current conditions of the county. Cotton is still the life-blood of the Black Belt economy, and few African Americans are enjoying any economic success. Du Bois describes the legal system and tenant farming system as only slightly removed from slavery. He also examines African American religion from its origins in African society, through its development in slavery, to the formation of the Baptist and Methodist churches. He argues that "the study of Negro religion is not only a vital part of the history of the Negro in America, but no uninteresting part of American history." He goes on to examine the impact of slavery on morality. In the last chapters of his book, Du Bois concentrates on how racial prejudice impacts individuals. He mourns the loss of his baby son, but he wonders if his son is not better off dead than growing up in a world dominated by the color-line. Du Bois relates the story of Alexander Crummel, who struggled against prejudice in his attempts to become an Episcopal priest. In "Of the Coming of John," Du Bois presents the story of a young black man who attains an education. John's new knowledge, however, places him at odds with a southern community, and he is destroyed by racism. Finally, Du Bois concludes his book with an essay on African American spirituals. These songs have developed from their African origins into powerful expressions of the sorrow, pain, and exile that characterize the African American experience. For Du Bois, these songs exist "not simply as the sole American music,

Thursday, November 21, 2019

College Book Report on Miracle At Philadelphia Essay

College Book Report on Miracle At Philadelphia - Essay Example One of the latest full-service entries in the history survey sweepstakes, American Passages is a beautiful text that is well-designed. It is written in an engaging style. The volumes have a friendly tone that is warm without being suffocating. Most students and faculty should find them appealing. The massive amount of carefully chosen illustrations of various kinds are nicely reproduced. The maps are also good, with some exceptions. Each paper volume has the same set of appendices, including the Declaration of Independence; the Constitution; the nations population, 1790-1998; the admission of states to the Union; presidential elections and administrations; and the justices of the Supreme Court. The volumes split in an unusual way, which is an improvement on the traditional arrangement, especially for Reconstruction specialists. There are two overlap chapters rather than one, and the second volume begins in mid-war, with early Union occupations and the first stirrings of release, rath er than in 1865, reflecting an interpretative trend pioneered by Eric Foner. This novel approach owes much to the breadth and vision of lead author Edward L. Ayers, whose interest in and knowledge of Southern history and Civil War culture is well known. Volume one takes the story to 1877, ending with chapter sixteen, while volume two begins with chapter fifteen, "Blood and Freedom, 1863-1867." Two maps start each volume: the first shows the states and their capitals, with important places in the text highlighted; the second is topographical. Each section (two to four chapters) of the narrative has time lines with key dates for politics and diplomacy; social and cultural events; and economics and technology I first read this book several years ago for my high school American History class, and I just recently read it again. This book is excellent no matter

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Doctrine of Determinism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Doctrine of Determinism - Essay Example All the elements that make the world function are constantly interacting with each other. These interactions follow a certain order (cosmic) sometimes. At other times these functional elements are in a state of disorder (chaos). The interactions categorize the world into two kinds. The first is the phenomenal world, which stands tall on our perception of reality. The second is the deterministic world, which advocates a sure-shot perspective on everything that happens. Consequently, a phenomenal world is an outcome of chance and randomness; while the deterministic world leaves no scope for chance or probability, apparently. But what is obvious is not always true. Recent scientific studies have put forth randomness as central to the universe. A physical being's genetic make up is the result of certain permutations and combinations that are purely random. So an individual is a consequence of cosmic coincidence! Biology justifies that. The Oxford dictionary defines chance as a possibility of something happening. Probability and likelihood are the other synonyms. In fact, we devise logic on the basis of chance. There are infinite situations when probabilistic logic becomes the foundation for sound reason and subsequent action. The notion of expected utility is the outcome of the probabilistic calculus. I work hard because I think it betters my chances to succeed. The practical dimension of chance makes it the central element in the otherwise deterministic world! Determinism is an apparent antonym of chance. Determinism looks so scientifically grounded, but it has a philosophical foundation in the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR). German rationalist, Leibniz, an adherent to this principle used it extensively in his philosophical findings. According to the Principle of Sufficient Reason, there is a reason why something happens in a particular way and not in some other way. It is a powerful principle. It defies the existence of chance in the real world. So if chance exists, then Principle of Sufficient Reason fails. Perhaps. Perhaps not. So we might observe that determinism is an offshoot of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Both the concepts seem to be in synergy. Determinism defies chance and so does the Principle of sufficient reason. So how are the two concepts different The Principle of Sufficient Reason seems to justify the concept of rational thought. But a detailed analysis brings out something drastically different. If this principle is to be believed, then there has to be a justification for anything and everything. Subsequently, there has to be a reason as to why there should be a reason for anything to happen. But Leibniz has offered no explanation for this. It is an underived principle. So what is the rationale for something, which has no reason or logic The explanation of the principle refutes its existence. Strange paradox. Another interesting concept that is significant in the explanation of the Principle of Sufficient Reason vis--vis the concept of determinism is the principle of Universal Sufficient Causation. According to the concept of Universal Suff

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay Example for Free

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay According to the peer material provided for review entitled â€Å"Water and Air Pollution Analysis† dated September 19, 2007, among the main environmental problems of Arkansas is water pollution. The paper stated that polluted water caused people to be sick, obliging them to file a lawsuit against several big poultry farms believed to have caused the problem brought about by chicken waste. This hints at the problem of ground water contamination. The paper also said that because of the proliferation of chicken farms in the area, chicken waste is being widely used as fertilizers by farms, resulting to agricultural runoff which pollutes their streams and rivers. Elsewhere in the paper, the author also claimed that the agricultural runoff which is being conveyed by White River to the Mississippi River â€Å"leads to algae blooms that take oxygen from the water and kills fish. † This is a case of surface water pollution. The leading environmental issue in Arkansas, therefore, is ground water and surface water pollution from agricultural runoff. The chicken waste being used as fertilizer contains harmful elements which seeps through the layers of soil and contaminate the sources of ground water. According to information released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), chicken waste contains a combination of fungus, bacteria, and arsenic. Arsenic is found in chicken waste because â€Å"organic arsenic compounds are extensively added to poultry feed to enhance growth. † Therefore, if the chicks grow rapidly, the profit of the poultry company is increased. According to the EPA, â€Å"the most common arsenical poultry feed is Roxarsone [and ] by design, most of the arsenic, which is number one on the EPAs toxic substance list, is excreted in the manure of the chicken. † (Lundy Davis, 2003) In other words, if this organic arsenic manages to seep through the layers of soil, it could easily contaminate the groundwater which is the source of the people’s drinking water. In the face of this hazard, it is paramount that efforts should be exerted by the residents of Arkansas to push for the illegalization of adding organic arsenic to poultry feeds. The people should organize themselves into a lobby group, hire lawyers if necessary to assist them, and approach government officials to achieve this objective. A broad united front is needed for this purpose because poultry raisers, a rather strong lobby group itself, would not take things sitting down since removing organic arsenic compound from poultry feeds would inevitably mean reduced profit for the industry. Over-fertilization should also be avoided. The amount of chicken waste being spread over the fields should not be overdone so that the seepage could be contained. Crop specialization should likewise be avoided because specialized crops usually require more fertilizer to achieve a high production level. The tendency to provide more fertilizer to specialized crops therefore could lead to over-fertilization. For the farming community of Arkansas, crop rotation and the planting of cover crops is advisable. Crop rotation is planting different kinds of crops alternately in order to enhance the quality of the soil and allow reduced use of fertilizer. Cover crops, on the other hand, refer to the types of crop which has a rooting system capable of storing nitrogen. If farmers could plant these kinds of crops, they could avoid the use of large amounts of fertilizers. (Pedersen, 1997) Surface water pollution due to agricultural runoff could be prevented or reduced in several ways. One of them is the maintenance or restoration of natural riparian zones. A riparian zone is an area of vegetation which is usually found near the waterways. In some areas, farmers destroy these riparian zones to enlarge their farms. If they had done this, it is time that they restore them because riparian zones act as buffers which prevent the agricultural runoff to go down the streams or rivers. (Overmann, n. d. ) In areas where the farms are situated in steep hillsides overlooking the rivers, constructing â€Å"terraces† is a good solution. Terraces refer to the short slopes planted with grass or other types of cover crops which are alternating with the level areas planted with crops. These terraces â€Å"hold the slope in place† and prevents agriculture runoff from easily reaching the waterways. â€Å"Contour farming† could also be practiced by farmers in Arkansas. Iowa farmers have applied this method with some success. In the traditional method of farming, the crops are planted in straight rows. Under this method, however, water could easily run down the slope or hill following the rows. In the contour farming, the crops are planted in rows which circle around the slope in curves, thereby breaking the flow of water. This prevents runoff from going down directly to the river. (Iowa Association of Naturalists, n. d. ) In New Orleans, the situation is slightly different. Water pollution is also caused by runoff but here it comes from the industrial plants which pour their industrial wastes into the rivers. Mining activities are also a source of runoff in New Orleans. Floods and storms also contribute to water pollution in the area. For instance, when Hurricane Katrina struck, it caused a lot of havoc in the area including polluting the waterways. The sewerage system was destroyed, causing liquid and solid wastes to be spilled into the rivers and the ocean. Air pollution is caused by geothermal plants which are emitting harmful substances into the environment. Turbulences popularly known as Building Wakes accelerate the rate of diffusion of these substances to the environment. The frequent occurrence of dust storms is another source of smog while the greenhouse effect contributes substantial emissions of hydrofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. Water pollution in New Orleans has caused people to suffer from dysentery and cholera and even displaced some residents from their homes because of polluted drinking water supply. The overt effects of air pollution, on the other hand, are asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The causes of pollution in the two areas may differ, but the effects are similarly destructive and, in some cases, life-threatening. Arkansas and New Orleans should both fight pollution, mustering all the resources available to them. References Iowa Association of Naturalists. (n. d. ). Iowa Water Pollution. Retrieved September 23, 2007 2007 from http://www.extension. iastate. edu/Publications/IAN103. pdf Lundy Davis. (2003). Something Fowl in the Air – Poultry Industry Contamination. PR Newswire. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://www. animalsvoice. com/PAGES/writes/editorial/news/invest/fowl_air. html Overmann, S. R. (n. d. ). Water Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://agripollute. nstl. gov. cn/MirrorResources/10087/update30. html Pedersen, T. L. (1997). Agricultural Run-Off as a Source of Drinking Water Contamination. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://extoxnet. orst. edu/faqs/safedrink/ag. htm

Friday, November 15, 2019

Greek Theatre :: essays research papers

â€Å"Greek Theatre† Hello my name is Chris Gerald and I want to tell you about Thespis. The honor of the beginning of theatre should be given to one man. His name is Thespis. With his chorus he would carry his belongings on a cart whose floor and tailboard could form an improvised stage. In traveling from one festival to another eventually he reached Athens, Greece. He was said to be the first to win a prize at the newly established festival in the city of Dionysia. The great innovation that Thespis made was to detach himself from the chorus, and engage in dialogue in the character of god or the hero whose deeds were being celebrated. He was said to be the first actor as well as a manager. Thespis was the first unsanctified person who dared to assume the character of a god.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The most important feature of their costumes was the mask, said to have been introduced by Thespis. Masks were made of lightwood, cork or linen. These enabled three actors in a tragedy to play several parts each. It also allowed a theatre staffed entirely of men to Impersonate woman since woman were not allowed to be in plays. More than thirty types of masks are said to have existed. Each one showing age, standing, sex, fear, rage, hate, and despair.â€Å"My Greatest Fear†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Of all the fears in life, my greatest would definitely have to be the loss of my parents. My parents have had a great influence in my life. Threw thick and thin they have been there right by my side. I would be lost without them. My childhood memories of my mom are always warm. I can remember her tucking me in for bed every night. She always has good advice for me in every situation I am in. If I ever lost her it would be a great chunk out of my life. I wouldn’t have anyone to confide in. My dad is the provider for our house. I can remember one year he worked threw Christmas just to keep his job. That was a very sad point in my life. He always makes sacrifices for our family. He helps me the most when my mom and me are having trouble.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Personal Space and the Impact of Eye Contact Essay

As being a very important part of the human’s behavior, Personal Space and eye contact attracted a lot of scientists and research institutions. As Jeff Hughes and Morton Goldman (1978) have shown that how variations in eye contact and of experimental confederate affected the violation of personal space. Different people have different definitions to the term ‘Personal Space’. Personal Space may be denned as the area individuals maintain around themselves into which others cannot intrude without arousing discomfort (Hayduk, 1978). Personal Space is often described as a bubble of space surrounding a person. Buchanan, Goldman & Juhnke (1977) defines Personal Space as ‘a physical space surrounding an individual which, when intruded upon, generates an observable reaction of discomfort or flight’. The first factor to be considered that influences a person’s personal space is body position. Whether a person is sitting down or standing up can greatly affect their personal space. Hartnett, Bailey and Hartley (1974) claims that â€Å"for both the short and tall Os, the subjects were approached closer in the sitting position. From a territorial point of view, it could be that people believed that they are not really invading the personal space of others when they were in a position that seemed less threatening, which is sitting. The second factor to be considered that affects personal space is physical disability. Wright (1983) suggests that bad attitudes and perceptions about people with physical disabilities are highly retentive, and cannot be easily removed or changed. Kleck (1968) has also confirmed that people tend to give more personal space in social interactions to people with physical disabilities as compared to people without physical disabilities. A variable that has not been frequently manipulated in personal space research is eye contact. As seen in field experiments conducted by Buchanan, et al. (1977), males generally prefer to violate the personal space of another male who did not offer much eye contact, rather than another male who offered direct eye contact. Another experiment conducted by him shows that â€Å"female subjects preferred to violate the personal space of a female confederate who established eye contact with them†. It is also seen that females tend to avoid invading the personal space of males who had direct eye contact with them. However, females would rather violate the personal space of a male who are smiling at them and gazed directly at them, as compared to a male who had their backs turned. And according to Argyle and Dean, the eye contact is significantly reduced as proximity is increased and their finding that eye contact unpleasant or is to be avoided as proximity increase suggests that variations in the way a person gazes at others could affect intrusions into that person’s personal space. From these readings, it is expected that when two people approach each other with eye contact, the personal space between them will be bigger than without eye contact.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Occupational Safety and Health Essay

What is OSHA? OSHA is an abbreviation for Occupational Safety & Health Administration which is a government agency under the U.S department of Labor that helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. (____) OSHA is extremely important to the U.S and its labor force in many different ways than one. OSHA assists in safety on the job in several ways such as encouraging employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards, establishing the rights of employers and employees regarding the improvement of workplace safety and health, and also monitoring job-related illnesses and injuries through a system of reporting and record keeping. With the presence of OSHA businesses are required to follow certain regulations and guidelines that not only protect the employees but also prevent any unethical behavior from employers that may result anywhere from a high turnover rate to law suits. OSHA being this significant to the U.S labor force begins to bring about curiosity of what does the rest of the world practice to assure work-related safety on the job. Through research I have noticed that Canada, one of the United States closes neighbors, uses a system called CCOHS or Canadian Centre for occupational health and Safety. The CCOHS has a vision which states: â€Å"We serve Canadians – and the world – with credible and relevant tools and resources to improve workplace health and safety programs. We encourage you to join us in creating a work world without pain, loss or tragedy. We believe that all Canadians have a fundamental right to a healthy and safe working environment. Through our programs, services, knowledge, commitment, and action, CCOHS will continue its efforts to advance health and safety in the workplace† (____) CCOHS was established in 1978, to promote the total well-being – physical, psychosocial and mental health of working Canadians by providing information, training, education, management systems and solutions that support health, safety and wellness programs. (___) CCOHS is governed by a  tripartite Council representing government, employers and employees to ensure a balanced approach to workplace health and safety issues. CCOHS offers a range of workplace health and safety services to help organizations raise awareness, assess risks, implement prevention programs, and improve health, safety and well-being. Canada’s CCOHS and the United States’ OSHA are quite similar in the respect to fulfilling its obligation to encourage workplace health and safety, and reassure attitudes and procedures that will lead to better-quality worker physical and mental health through an extensive range of products and services. CCOHS provides a selection of public service initiatives at no charge to the user, such as OSH Answers, the person-to-person Inquiry Service, newsletters, and the workscape online discussion board to educate employees of implemented safety procedures and terms of CCOHS. This is Canada’s procedure to educate and encourage a safe, sufficient work environment. This is similar in term of the many programs that OSHA offers for training/education and the medical management program such as for CTD’s. The medical management program, through OSHA, ensures understanding of early identification, evaluation, and treatment of signs and symptoms to prevent their recurrence and to aid in their prevention. (pg. 53) In conclusion, we may come to the understanding that both the U.S and Canada aim to complete the same fundamental purpose within the work force which is safety. Although both systems titles may not be the same, they both have the same emphasis of ensuring and improving health programs concerning employers and employees. Both countries take pride in establishing and enforcing mandatory on the job safety and health standards. From my research I feel safe and now more educated while working within the U.S and if ever I were to move to Canada that comforting feeling would remain present.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cicely Tyson Quotes on Life, Acting and More

Cicely Tyson Quotes on Life, Acting and More Cicely Tyson, a stage and film actress, is known for roles in such projects as  Roots,  The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman,  Sounder  (which won her an Oscar nomination),  Fried Green Tomatoes,  The Help,  King  (in which she played Coretta Scott King),  A Woman Called Moses  (where she played Harriet Tubman),  The Marva Collins Story,  The Women of Brewster Place  and more. Selected Quotes from Cicely Tyson Challenges make you discover things about yourself that you never really knew. Theyre what make the instrument stretch - what make you go beyond the norm.It is so very difficult for me to say which of the roles Ive done is my favorite. Its like asking me which of three best friends is my favorite. I feel very close to each of these women because each afforded me an experience that allowed me tremendous growth.In my early years, there were a number of experiences that made me decide I could not afford the luxury of just being an actress. There were a number of issues I wanted to address. And I wanted to use my career as a platform.I am not a quitter. I will fight until I drop. It is just a matter of having some faith in the fact that as long as you are able to draw breath in the universe, you have a chance.When I attack a role, be it TV, film or stage,  the first thing I say is, I dont want to know anything.  If its good I dont want to hear it;  if its bad I dont want to hear it .  The only thing either thing can do is distract me.  I like to stay focused. I think when you begin to think of yourself as having achieved something, then theres nothing left for you to work towards. I want to believe that there is a mountain so high that I will spend my entire life striving to reach the top of it.You never know what motivates you.In my work, people say Im strong. But Im not aware of any of it. If I were conscious of it, that can only get in the way of future performances.I think when you begin to think of yourself as  having achieved something,  then theres nothing left for you to work towards.  I want to believe that there is a mountain so high  that I will spend my entire life striving to reach the top of it.One lady told me that before she saw Sounder she didnt believe black people could love each other, have deep relationships in the same way as white people.I was in California when this journalist made a blanket  statement about the fact that she did not think that  black men and women had the kind of love relationship  t hat Rebecca and Nathan had in Sounder. Ive never encouraged  anyone  to go into this business. But I would never  discourage   anybody  either, because no one could discourage me.I dont condemn anyone for making their choices. If someone chooses those roles, fine.But not for me.  When someone stops me and says, Youre the reason I became an actress,  that lets me know I made the right decision.When I told my mother that I wanted to be an actress, she said, you cant live here and do that, and so I moved out. I was determined to prove her wrong because she was so sure that I was going to go astray. And thats the juice that kept me going.We have to support our own films.  If we dont, how can we expect others to support them? More Quotes by Notable Women: All  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z Explore Womens Voices and Womens History Womens Voices  - About Womens QuotesBiographiesToday in Womens History About These Quotes Quote collection  assembled by  Jone Johnson Lewis. Each quotation page in this collection and the entire collection  © Jone Johnson Lewis. This is an informal collection assembled over many years. I regret that I am not be able to provide the original source if it is not listed with the quote. Citation information (example):Jone Johnson Lewis. Dorothy Height Quotes. About Womens History. URL: . Date accessed: (today).  (More on how to cite online sources including this page)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Taking another Pass at Passed

Taking another Pass at Passed Taking another Pass at â€Å"Passed† Taking another Pass at â€Å"Passed† By Maeve Maddox In my early days as a classroom teacher, I would occasionally finish giving a lesson on some aspect of English grammar or punctuation with the feeling that it had been so clear and so filled with wonderful examples that my students would never commit a related error again. It didn’t take me long to learn that common errors are common for a reason. Minds differ. Not everyone perceives things in quite the same way. A case in point is the problem that many writers have with the words past and passed. So far we’ve had two DWT posts on the past/passed usage: Alis Passed vs Past and my Confusing Passed with Past A recent e-mail question sent me back to read the comments and questions prompted by these posts. The comments indicate the extent and nature of the confusion that exists concerning the use of passed and past. Even some of the commentators who felt they understood the usage gave incorrect information in the explanations they offered. Some remarks suggest that the writer is trying to read more into the choice between passed and past than is warranted by a choice between a verb form and an adverb or a preposition. Dr. Babosar, the founder of GHB BioMedical Inc. who dedicates his life in the XXX industry for the Passed/Past 20 years. (the fact is he is still in this industry and still running the company) It doesn’t matter if the man is still in the industry or not. The word needed is an adjective: the past 20 years. It was the sound of horses being ridden past.†¨It was the sound of horses being ridden passed. The latter makes sense [says the commentator]. The horses pass the person, so they passed the person, therefore it is the sound they make as they approach and then pass the person. It more correctly describes the sounds. Again, too much ratiocination is going into this writer’s choice between past and passed. The function of the word in the sentence determines which form is called for. Ridden is a verb form. The word that follows it is an adverb. Passed cannot be used as an adverb. Past can. Precise Edit made this observation in one of the comments: In my experience, second-language learners are less likely to make this mistake [between passed and past] than native English speakers, perhaps because language learners write and speak from a background of training and not natural language use. I’m speculating, of course, but I wonder if direct training in usage and grammar affects this. It’s not speculation. From what I can tell, not much â€Å"direct training in usage and grammar† is going on in U.S. English classes these days. The teaching of formal grammar and rules of spelling and punctuation is perhaps seen as too much akin to that dreaded concept â€Å"rote learning.† Rules of standard usage are often arbitrary and confusing to an individual’s way of looking at things. For that reason they must be taught in the English classroom. Taught, not merely mentioned. The complicated efforts to determine whether to use past or passed in a sentence is a symptom of the way U.S. children are taught to approach all learning. What do you think? How do you feel? Such appeals to the individual have their place, but not when it comes to basic information. Some things need to be memorized and drilled. The parts of speech and the parts of the sentence fall into this category. One more time: passed is the past tense form of the verb to pass: to pass: transitive verb meaning â€Å"to go beyond a point or place† The principal parts are pass, passed, (have) passed, passing Examples: I pass my evenings alone. Please pass the potatoes. I am passing my days in the garden. I am passing all my courses in college. The truck passed the house. His uncle passed away. I have passed my driving test. Charlie has passed out the papers. The cat had passed beyond the fence before we noticed she was out. The word past can be used as more than one part of speech, but never as a verb. past: noun meaning â€Å"that which has happened in past time.† Ex. That’s all in the past. It’s usually preceded by the word â€Å"the.† past: adjective meaning â€Å"gone by in time; elapsed.† Ex. I haven’t seen him for the past month. past: adverb meaning â€Å"beyond.† Usually the point of reference is supplied by the context. Ex. I cowered as the bullets whizzed past. past: preposition meaning â€Å"beyond.† It differs from an adverb because it is followed by an object. Ex. The bullet whizzed past my head. Two more handy tips: The only verb that belongs in front of passed is some form of have: The days have passed quickly. He had passed his exams before his father lost his job. The horse has passed the finish line. If the verb is is, don’t use passed: For, lo, the winter is past. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Greek Words You Should KnowIn Search of a 4-Dot EllipsisPunctuation Is Powerful

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Economic Consequences of Ageism on the Elderly and the American Research Paper

Economic Consequences of Ageism on the Elderly and the American Healthcare System - Research Paper Example From this paper it is clear that old persons have less employment opportunities and have a lower pay scale as compared to younger employees. The 1967 Equal Employment opportunity Commission provides protection to job applicants and employees from discrimination on the basis of mature age. Aged Americas are an important part of society and can still contribute towards nation building.This report highlights that  the word â€Å"ageism† was coined in 1968 by Robert Butler. The media accepted the term and later it found its way into The Oxford English Dictionary. Ageism has been reported by many old persons and is widely present in the country’s establishment resulting in bigotry in the media, workplace, healthcare and language. For instance, presence of discrimination in case of appointing older persons,   absence of health care in health care institutions, the use of abusive language and the negative portrayal of old persons in cartoons showing them as ugly, cantanker ous and dirty. Negative feelings about a certain group can be called as the negative attitudes. Sickness, impotency, health decline, mental illness, poverty, gloominess, isolation, unattractiveness and futility are the major nine stereotypes depicting bias against elders.A major discrimination against elders is made on the basis of illness faced by majority of their population.  About half of the American population believes that poor health is a grave trouble faced by majority of people over 65.... Negative feelings about a certain group can be called as the negative attitudes. Sickness, impotency, health decline, mental illness, poverty, gloominess, isolation, unattractiveness and futility are the major nine stereotypes depicting bias against elders. A major discrimination against elders is made on the basis of illness faced by majority of their population. About half of the American population believes that poor health is a grave trouble faced by majority of people over 65. However, the fact is that most of the elderly people which constitute more than 85 percent of the elderly population take on strong activities of daily life like ingestion, bathing, etc. Only about 5 percent of these elderly persons are hospitalized. Another stereotype is that older persons have no desire for sexual activity and those who spend ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF AGEISM ON THE ELDERLY AND THE AMERICAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM time in such action can be called as ethically nasty or at the slightest peculiar . The truth is that persons crossing the age of 65 have concern and capability for sexual relationships. They have freedom from alarm of pregnancy, job stress and childbearing errands, free time and more grown-up relations. Ugliness of old people is another common stereotype. Beauty is associated with youth and women particularly fear the loss of their beauty as a result of aging. In contrast to our culture, some cultures like those of the Japanese tend to associate wrinkles and gray hair with insight, development and long term service. Palmore (1999) states that it is thought that age increase from middle age is associated with a decline in ability to learn and remember. But most aged adults tend to keep hold of learning abilities. Illness, lack of education, style of learning,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Is wind power green Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Is wind power green - Essay Example Wind power, though helpful in promoting alternative resource could not sustain the growing need of electricity; the claim about how it reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emissions holds a lot of questionable areas, while its more subtle effects on animals is as fatal as the blatant ones. Wind Power The wind’s molecular structure and versatility in movement are the main reasons why it is a good agent of producing electricity by means of wind turbines. The blades of the turbines are â€Å"designed to capture kinetic energy in the wind† (Layton, n.d.). The heat of the sun combined with the irregularities of the Earth’s surface, are the main factors of wind formation; thus leading us to the idea that wind power is basically an offshoot of solar energy. The origin of using the wind as an energy resource dates back hundreds of years ago when civilizations prosper and began to develop agriculture. According to Redlinger, Andersen, Morthorst, and the United Nations Env ironment Programme (2002), the origins of wind power may be traced back in ancient Asia particularly in some parts of North Asia and the Middle East. In the eve of European navigation, windmills were spread across the European continent particularly in the Netherlands and Denmark, where windmills were used primarily for irrigation. What convinces environmental advocates that wind power is the safest form of renewable energy is the fact that it does not reproduce radioactive chemicals like what nuclear energy does. Truly, wind energy is tried and tested through time. However, the needs of the society nowadays are a far cry from what it is before. If power was only needed to process wheat and other agricultural products, then the amount of power the wind produces would be enough, but looking into the modern context where steel and massive electricity needed to light the country’s households, power generated by the wind would only mean a speck of dust. A Lighter Side of the Issu e Harnessing energy from the natural wind may be the biggest advantage of wind power if compared to fossil fuels or nuclear energy. According to the Energy Resource Center of Wisconsin (n.d.), power plants generally produce toxic by-products such as mercury and lead, which are both lethal to the environment and human and animal health. The use of wind power would likely to reduce the production of these chemicals in such a way that it would prevent contamination of clean natural resources. In addition, an edge that wind power may have among other forms of energy source is the longevity of the system. The wind power equipments have accessible materials for its maintenance and would less likely to require expensive machineries for its sustenance (Cane, 2010). Nowadays, information about the wind power offers a bright future for the environment; however several environmental advocates disagree with this statement. The Other Side In his book Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future, Bryce (2010) regarded the energy by the wind power, a myth; more-so with its efficiency as electricity provider. In the case of Denmark’s wind power resources, the wind turbines needed a considerable amount of electric generation capacity (Bryce 2010). Basing on the Denmark’